to 19% of the younger adults ( WHO, 2010b ). Among specific subpopulations of older adults, this lack of PA is even more prevalent, such as single older adults ( Masi, Chen, Hawkley, & Cacioppo, 2011 ; Toepoel, 2013 ) and adults with physical impairments ( WHO, 2011 ). Several studies have shown
Janet M. Boekhout, Brenda A.J. Berendsen, Denise A. Peels, Catherine A.W. Bolman, and Lilian Lechner
Luke Hogarth, Brendan Burkett, Peter Van de Vliet, and Carl Payton
. Swimmers with physical impairment compete across the largest number of classes—10 swimmers for freestyle, backstroke, and butterfly events (S1–S10) and 9 swimmers for breaststroke events (SB1–SB9) with lower class numbers indicating greater activity limitation. Eligible types of physical impairment include
Allen W. Burton and Walter E. Davis
An ecological model of motor behavior presented by Davis and Burton (12) suggests that the qualitative and quantitative aspects of motor behavior for all persons emerge from three sets of constraints: performer, environmental, and task. The involvement and performance of movement activities by children with physical impairments may be optimized by carefully manipulating one or more of these three types of constraints, and by recognizing and accepting that the optimal movement patterns used by these children with unique performer constraints may differ from those exhibited by other children.
Hannah Macdougall, Paul O’Halloran, Nora Shields, and Emma Sherry
This systematic review included 12 studies that compared the well-being of Para and Olympic sport athletes. Meta-analyses revealed that Para athletes, compared with Olympic sport athletes, had lower levels of self-acceptance, indicated by athletic identity, d = -0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) [-0.77, -0.16], and body-image perceptions, d = -0.33, 95% CI [-0.59, -0.07], and differed from Olympic sport athletes in terms of their motivation, indicated by a greater mastery-oriented climate, d = 0.74, 95% CI [0.46, 1.03]. Given an inability to pool the remaining data for meta-analysis, individual standardized mean differences were calculated for other dimensions of psychological and subjective well-being. The results have implications for professionals and coaches aiming to facilitate the well-being needs of athletes under their care. Future research would benefit from incorporating established models of well-being based on theoretical rationale combined with rigorous study designs.
Sharon R. Guthrie and Shirley Castelnuovo
The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the ways women with physical disabilities shape their identities and manage (i.e., cope or come to terms with) their disabilities while living in an able-bodyist culture. Particular emphasis was placed on how these women, all of whom were participating in sport or exercise, used physical activity in the management process. In-depth interviews were conducted with 34 women who had physical mobility disabilities. Findings indicated three different approaches to managing disability via physical activity: (a) management by minimizing the significance of the body, (b) management by normalization of the body, and (c) management by optimizing mind-body functioning. They also indicated that having a disability does not preclude positive physical and global self-perceptions. The implications of these findings for sport and society are discussed.
Yves C. Vanlandewijck, Arthur J. Spaepen, and Roeland J. Lysens
Fifty-two male elite wheelchair basketball athletes, classified into four functional ability classes, were studied to determine whether overall wheelchair basketball performance in a game situation is related to the functional ability level of the participant. To determine the quality of the individual’s game performance, 18 championship games were videotaped and analyzed by means of the Comprehensive Basketball Grading System. Physical fitness parameters (propulsive force and aerobic power) were determined in specific laboratory conditions. Force application on the wheelchair handrims was measured by means of an ergodyn device. Finally, the subjects, while in their wheelchairs, performed a maximal exercise capacity test on a motordriven treadmill. The analyses indicated significant differences in field performance and aerobic power between Class I and the rest of the classes. However, isometric and dynamic force application on the handrims could not be proven to be functional ability dependent. In conclusion, reducing the number of classes to improve fair and equitable competition in wheelchair basketball was considered viable.
Hannah Macdougall, Paul O’Halloran, Emma Sherry, and Nora Shields
The well-being needs and strengths of para-athletes in a global and sport-specific context were investigated across subjective psychological, social, and physical health and well-being dimensions. Data were drawn from (a) semistructured interviews with Australian para-athletes (n = 23), (b) a focus group with the Australian Paralympic Committee (n = 9), and (c) a confirmatory para-athlete focus group (n = 8). The well-being needs and strengths of para-athletes differed across gender, sport, level of competition, and nature of impairment. Well-being needs were an interaction between physical pain, emotional regulation, lacking purpose outside of sport, and a lack of self-acceptance, especially for athletes with acquired impairments. Well-being strengths were perceived to increase as athletes increased their level of competition, and included personal growth, optimism, strong social support networks, and contributing to multiple communities. The importance of well-being as a multidimensional concept within the global and sport-specific context for para-athletes is discussed.
Nima Dehghansai, Veronica Allan, Ross A. Pinder, and Joe Baker
prior to participant recruitment, and all participants were required to provide informed consent. Participants This study focused on a subset of data collected from participants with physical impairments ( N = 187; 127 males and 60 females with average age of 33.26 [12.61] years). Participants were
J.P. Barfield, Stephanie Williams, Madison R. Currie, and Xiuyan Guo
, unlike other football variations that serve one primary population (e.g., five-a-side for athletes with visual impairment), PF embraces the Paralympic mission toward social inclusion by empowering persons with varied physical impairments to compete together, including athletes with arthrogryposis
Anna Bjerkefors, Johanna S. Rosén, Olga Tarassova, and Anton Arndt
to an increase in pelvis and trunk rotation and a higher power output. 1 Kayaking performed by people with physical impairment is called para-kayak and was introduced as an international competitive sport in 2009 and debuted in the Paralympic Games in 2016. In Paralympic sports, athletes compete in