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Physical Inactivity, Inequalities, and Disparities Across Districts of Iran: A STEPs Survey-Based Analysis

Amirali Hajebi, Maryam Nasserinejad, Sina Azadnajafabad, Erfan Ghasemi, Negar Rezaei, Moein Yoosefi, Azin Ghamari, Mohammad Keykhaei, Ali Ghanbari, Esmaeil Mohammadi, Mohammad-Mahdi Rashidi, Fateme Gorgani, Mana Moghimi, Alireza Namazi Shabestari, and Farshad Farzadfar

Physical inactivity (PI) is a global health issue and public health priority that has drawn global attention due to its attributable burden. 1 PI is considered as the fourth major cause of death globally. 2 It is identified as one of the major risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs

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Physical Inactivity Prevalence in the Islamic World: An Updated Analysis of 47 Countries

David Kahan

estimated to cost Int$14 billion annually in lost productivity 5 and Int$48 billion annually in treatment costs if current levels of physical inactivity remain. 1 Thus, each country should engage in a comprehensive and coordinated evidence-based response to halt or reverse physical inactivity prevalence

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Incidence and Predictors of Physical Inactivity Among Malaysian Community-Dwelling Older Persons

Azianah Mohamad Ibrahim, Devinder Kaur Ajit Singh, Sumaiyah Mat, Arimi Fitri Mat Ludin, and Suzana Shahar

Physical inactivity is a global pandemic with 1.4 billion adults insufficiently active worldwide ( World Health Organization, 2018 ). It has also been reported to be associated with higher risks of all-cause mortality including that from cardiovascular disease, breast and prostate cancer, fractures

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Physical Inactivity and Life Expectancy in Canada

Peter T. Katzmarzyk


Although the prevalence of physical inactivity is high in Canada, few studies have assessed its public health impact.


A cause-deleted methodology was employed to estimate the effects of physical inactivity on life expectancy. Life expectancy in 2002 was estimated from an abridged life table analysis, which was repeated after removing deaths from physical inactivity. Deaths from physical inactivity were estimated from published population-attributable fractions for coronary artery disease, stroke, hypertension, colon cancer, breast cancer, and type 2 diabetes.


Life expectancy was 79.7 y in the total population, 77.2 y in males, and 82.1 y in females. Compared to overall life expectancy, physical inactivity cause-deleted values were 0.86 y lower in the total population, 0.65 y lower in males, and 1.0 y lower in females.


Life expectancy could be increased by over 10 months if Canadians could be encouraged to be physically active.

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Sedentary Behavior, Physical Inactivity, and Metabolic Syndrome: Pilot Findings From the Rapid Assessment Disuse Index Study

Kerem Shuval, Liora Sahar, Kelley Pettee Gabriel, Gregory Knell, Galit Weinstein, Tal Gafni Gal, Felipe Lobelo, and Loretta DiPietro

providers in a busy clinical setting in measuring their patients’ “disuse” (ie, defined as a combination of sedentary behavior and physical inactivity) and provide subsequent recommendations to modify behavior. 12 Primary care providers’ advice is well respected, and pertinent tools and referral partners

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Leisure-Time Physical Inactivity’s Association With Environmental, Demographic, and Lifestyle Factors in the United States

Ray M. Merrill

matter (PM) 2.5 air pollution was associated with an increase in leisure-time physical inactivity (LTPI). 16 A nationally representative cross-sectional survey conducted in the United States found that increased PM2.5 was associated with lower physical activity. 17 All studies in a systematic review

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Physical Inactivity Among Older Canadian Adults

Sunday Azagba and Mesbah Fathy Sharaf


In spite of the substantial benefits of physical activity for healthy aging, older adults are considered the most physically inactive segment of the Canadian population. This paper examines leisure-time physical inactivity (LTPA) and its correlates among older Canadian adults.


We use data from the Canadian Community Health Survey with 45,265 individuals aged 50–79 years. A logistic regression is estimated and separate regressions are performed for males and females.


About 50% of older Canadian adults are physically inactive. Higher odds of physical inactivity are found among current smokers (OR = 1.52, CI = 1.37–1.69), those who binge-drink (OR = 1.24, CI = 1.11–1.39), visible minorities (OR = 1.60, CI = 1.39–1.85), immigrants (OR = 1.13, CI = 1.02–1.25), individuals with high perceived life stress (OR = 1.48, CI = 1.31–1.66). We also find lower odds of physical inactivity among: males (OR = 0.89, CI = 0.83 to 0.96), those with strong social interaction (OR = 0.71, CI = 0.66–0.77), with general life satisfaction (OR = 0.66, CI = 0.58–0.76) and individuals with more education. Similar results are obtained from separate regressions for males and females.


Identifying the correlates of LTPA among older adults can inform useful intervention measures.

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Risk Factors for Physical Inactivity Among Children With and Without Asthma Living in Peri-Urban Communities of Lima, Peru

Sathvik Namburar, William Checkley, Oscar Flores-Flores, Karina M. Romero, Katherine Tomaino Fraser, Nadia N. Hansel, Suzanne L. Pollard, and GASP Study Investigators

Physical inactivity is a worldwide epidemic and is one of the leading risk factors for premature death worldwide. 1 An estimated 23% of adults and 81% of adolescents do not currently meet the World Health Organization’s recommendations for regular exercise of 60 minutes of daily exercise for

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Physical Activity Prevalence and Correlates Among New Zealand Older Adults

Hayley Guiney, Michael Keall, and Liana Machado

nationally-representative research using that age range definition ( Mummery et al., 2007 ) and to enable a sufficient sample size for analysis. By providing up-to-date information on New Zealand older adults’ physical activity levels and identifying the correlates of both physical inactivity and meeting the

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Relationship of Falls and Fear of Falling to Activity Limitations and Physical Inactivity in Parkinson’s Disease

Mon S. Bryant, Diana H. Rintala, Jyh-Gong Hou, and Elizabeth J. Protas


To investigate the relationships between falls, fear of falling, and activity limitations in individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD).


Cross-sectional study of individuals with mild to moderate PD (N = 83). Associations among demographic data, fall frequency, disease severity, motor impairment, ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL), Activities Balance Confidence Scale, Iowa Fatigue Scale, Comorbidity Index, and Physical Activity Scale for Elders were studied.


Frequent fallers had more ADL limitations than nonfallers (p < .001) and rare fallers (p = .004). Frequent fallers reported a lower percentage of ability to perform ADL than nonfallers (p = .003). Frequent fallers and rare fallers were less physically active than nonfallers (p = .015 and p = .040, respectively). Frequent fallers and rare fallers reported a higher level of fear of falling than nonfallers (p = .031 and p = .009, respectively).


Falls and fear of falling were associated with more ADL limitations and less physical activity after adjusting for physical impairments.