aging populations ( Department of Information Services, Executive Yuan, 2015 ). Evidence has suggested that physical performance and balance decline with age ( Auyeung, Lee, Leung, Kwok, & Woo, 2014 ; Ishizaki et al., 2011 ; Wang, Yeh, Wang, Wang, & Lin, 2011 ). Declining mobility and low levels of
Effects of a Community Care Station Program With Structured Exercise Intervention on Physical Performance and Balance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Prospective 2-Year Observational Study
Chung-Chao Liang, Qi-Xing Change, Yu-Chou Hung, Chizan-Chung Chen, Chun-Hsiang Lin, Yu-Chun Wei, and Jia-Ching Chen
Sarcopenia Defined by Combining Height- and Weight-Adjusted Skeletal Muscle Indices is Closely Associated With Poor Physical Performance
Nai-Hsin Meng, Chia-Ing Li, Chiu-Shong Liu, Wen-Yuan Lin, Chih-Hsueh Lin, Chin-Kai Chang, Tsai-Chung Li, and Cheng-Chieh Lin
To compare muscle strength and physical performance among subjects with and without sarcopenia of different definitions.
A population-based cross-sectional study.
857 community residents aged 65 years or older.
Sarcopenia was defined according to the European Working Group of Sarcopenia in Older People consensus criteria. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measured lean soft tissue mass. Sarcopenic participants with low height-adjusted or weight-adjusted skeletal muscle index (SMI) were classified as having h-sarcopenia or w-sarcopenia, respectively. Combined sarcopenia (c-sarcopenia) was defined as having either h- or w-sarcopenia. The participants underwent six physical performance tests: walking speed, timed up-and-go, six-minute walk, single-leg stance, timed chair stands, and flexibility test. The strength of five muscle groups was measured.
Participants with h-sarcopenia had lower weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass, and absolute muscle strength (p ≤ .001); those with w-sarcopenia had higher weight, BMI, fat mass (p < .001), and low relative muscle strength (p ≤ .003). Participants with c-sarcopenia had poorer performance in all physical performance tests, whereas h-sarcopenia and w-sarcopenia were associated with poor performance in four tests.
Subjects with h- and w-sarcopenia differ significantly in terms of obesity indicators. Combining height- and weight-adjusted SMIs can be a feasible method to define sarcopenia.
The Association of Physical-Performance Level with Attitude Toward Exercise in Older Adults
Milan Chang, Suzanne Leveille, Jiska Cohen-Mansfield, and Jack M. Guralnik
The Hebrew Home Study of Impairment and Exercise is a cross-sectional community-based study of nondisabled adults age 75–85 years that assessed attitude toward exercise by asking level of agreement with four statements evaluating participants’ perceptions of the health benefits and personal rewards of exercise. A physical-performance battery evaluated lower extremity function on a scale of 0 to 12. Attitude toward exercise was compared across 4 groups: non-vigorous exercisers with scores of 4–6 (n = 21), 7–9 (n = 90), or 10–12 (n = 113) and vigorous exercisers (n = 71). Vigorous exercisers had a significantly better attitude toward exercise than the reference group did, with odds ratios of 1.8-5.5 in all attitude statements. The lowest and moderate-performance groups had less positive attitudes toward exercise than the reference group did, with odds ratios of 0.27–0.62 for all statements. There was a highly significant gradient with better attitude toward exercise and higher functional-status level. Future work in improving older adults’ compliance with exercise should take into account the less positive attitude of those with functional limitations toward the benefits of exercise.
The Influence of Self-Generated Emotions on Physical Performance: An Investigation of Happiness, Anger, Anxiety, and Sadness
Marco Rathschlag and Daniel Memmert
The present study examined the relationship between self-generated emotions and physical performance. All participants took part in five emotion induction conditions (happiness, anger, anxiety, sadness, and an emotion-neutral state) and we investigated their influence on the force of the finger musculature (Experiment 1), the jump height of a counter-movement jump (Experiment 2), and the velocity of a thrown ball (Experiment 3). All experiments showed that participants could produce significantly better physical performances when recalling anger or happiness emotions in contrast to the emotion-neutral state. Experiments 1 and 2 also revealed that physical performance in the anger and the happiness conditions was significantly enhanced compared with the anxiety and the sadness conditions. Results are discussed in relation to the Lazarus (1991a, 2000a) cognitive-motivational-relational (CMR) theory framework.
Variation in Physical Performance of Futsal Players During Congested Fixtures
João Nuno Ribeiro, Diogo Monteiro, Bruno Gonçalves, João Brito, Jaime Sampaio, and Bruno Travassos
, research available on the impact of futsal match play in short congested periods is very scarce and remains unclear. To date, only 2 studies have examined the physical performance of futsal players in congested match periods. 14 , 15 Charlot et al 14 analyzed the intensity of matches on a 4-day FIFA
Physical Performance in Elite Male and Female Team-Handball Players
Herbert Wagner, Patrick Fuchs, Andrea Fusco, Philip Fuchs, Jeffrey W. Bell, and Serge P. von Duvillard
directions, and hard body contacts that are frequently interspersed with low-intensity movements such as standing and walking. 1 – 6 Consequently, in both sexes, physical performance in team handball is essential to tolerate these intense and dynamic movements and to prevent injuries, whereas the
Physical Activity Changes From Before to During the First Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Finland
Katja Lindeman, Laura Karavirta, Johanna Eronen, Niina Kajan, Erja Portegijs, and Taina Rantanen
with a population-based sample in a context where no curfews were imposed, but still many activities were suspended, and staying at home was recommended. Physical performance that refers to mobility-related objectively measured whole-body function ( Beaudart et al., 2019 ) can be either a prerequisite
Changes in Sprint Force–Velocity Profile in International Para Footballers
Iván Peña-González, Alejandro Javaloyes, Jose Manuel Sarabia, and Manuel Moya-Ramón
responsible for players’ high performance, are alternated with low-intensity recovery periods. 2 Players’ physical performance in these determinant actions is usually assessed by linear-sprint, jump, and/or change-of-direction tests, 4 – 7 whereas the ability to resist the repetition of these high
Is Physical Activity Associated With Physical Performance in Adults With Intellectual Disability?
Jian Xu, Poram Choi, Robert W. Motl, and Stamatis Agiovlasitis
, 2012 ; Oppewal, Hilgenkamp, van Wijck, & Evenhuis, 2013 ). Lower-extremity physical functioning can be evaluated with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), which has been applied to a wide range of populations, including community-dwelling older adults, adults with multiple sclerosis, and
The Effects of Overt Head Movements on Physical Performance After Positive Versus Negative Self-Talk
Javier Horcajo, Borja Paredes, Guillermo Higuero, Pablo Briñol, and Richard E. Petty
-task performance, including physical performance ( Hatzigeorgiadis et al., 2011 ; see Tod, Edwards, McGuigan, & Lovell, 2015 for an additional review). This is an important finding, given that physical performance (e.g., maximal strength, endurance, or power) is a key factor of most sports (e.g., see Baechle