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Edward McAuley and Diane Gill

Interest in the role of self-confidence in sport performance has been high in sport psychology research. A measure to assess general physical self-efficacy has recently been developed, but without application to competitive sport performance. The present study examined the role of general and task-specific self-efficacy in women's intercollegiate gymnastics. It also assessed the reliability and validity of the Physical Self-Efficacy Scale in a competitive sport setting. The Physical Self-Efficacy Scale was found to be a reliable and valid instrument for measuring an individual's general physical self-efficacy in sport. However, the task-specific measures of self-efficacy and the gymnast's prediction of how they would perform proved to be much more powerful variables for predicting actual gymnastic performance. The results are discussed in terms of the relationships between different types of self-efficacy and sport performance and the problems associated with self-efficacy measurement.

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Liang Hu, Edward McAuley, and Steriani Elavsky

This study was designed to address whether the Perceived Physical Ability (PPA) subscale of the Physical Self-Efficacy Scale (PSES; Ryckman, Robbins, Thornton, & Cantrell, 1982) measures self-efficacy or self-esteem. Secondary analyses of four previously reported data sets were conducted to examine the extent to which the PPA overlaps with multidimensional self-esteem measures. Once the factor structure of the PPA was confirmed, multitrait-multimethod analyses were employed to establish convergent and discriminant validity of the PPA and task-specific self-efficacy measures with self-esteem measures. The results support the position that the PPA may be more reflective of esteem than efficacy. Additionally, task-specific self-efficacy measures demonstrated stronger associations with behavioral outcomes than did the PPA. It is recommended that if the PPA is to be used for research purposes, it may have greater utility as a measure of physical self-esteem rather than self-efficacy.

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Maria Kavussanu and Edward McAuley

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between reported physical activity and optimism. A secondary purpose was to determine whether physical self-efficacy and trait anxiety mediate the relationship between exercise and optimism. Participants (N = 188) were administered a battery of questionnaires assessing optimism, pessimism, physical self-efficacy, trait anxiety, and extent and nature of involvement in physical activity. Demographic information was also collected. The results indicated that high active individuals were significantly more optimistic and less pessimistic than inactive/low active individuals. In addition, the moderately and high active groups reported significantly higher physical self-efficacy and lower trait anxiety than the inactive/low active group. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that trait anxiety and physical self-efficacy accounted for significant unique variation in optimism. The findings are consistent with previous research indicating that optimists engage in exercise significantly more often than pessimists.

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Curt L. Lox, Edward MeAuley, and R. Shawn Tucker

The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of regular exercise participation as an intervention for enhancing subjective well-being in an HIV-1 population. Specifically, this study investigated the effects of a 12-week exercise intervention on physical self-efficacy, positive and negative mood, and life satisfaction. Participants (N = 33) were randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise training group (n = 11), a resistance weight-training group (n = 12), or a stretching/flexibility control group ( n = 10). Results indicated that both aerobic and weight-training exercise interventions enhanced physical self-efficacy, positive and negative mood, and satisfaction with life. Conversely, control participants experienced declines in each of these variables. Taken together, the findings seem to suggest that exercise may be one therapeutic modality capable of enhancing components of subjective well-being and should be considered a complimentary therapy for treating the psychological and emotional manifestations associated with a positive HIV-1 diagnosis.

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Jerome Quarterman, Geraldine Harris, and Rose M. Chew

The present investigation examined how African American students rated the values of the basic instructional physical education activity program at two historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) based on a 24-item questionnaire. Descriptive data indicated that the students rated keeping in good health and physical condition as the most important value. A principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation revealed five underlying factors that appeared related to (a) physical self-efficacy, (b) a commitment to lifelong participation, (c) health-related physical fitness, (d) health/aesthetic benefits, and (e) social benefits. Physical self-efficacy appeared to be the most significant, accounting for the largest portion of the explained variance. African American female students placed more emphasis on health/aesthetic benefits, and African American male students placed emphasis on the social benefits. Overall, results of the present investigation generally appeared consistent with findings of earlier studies conducted at predominantly white Colleges and universities.

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Cadeyrn J. Gaskin and Tony Morris

The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationships between physical activity, health-related quality of life (HRQL), and psychosocial functioning (mood states, physical self-efficacy, social support) in adults with cerebral palsy (N = 51). The data was heavily skewed, with many participants reporting that they performed minimal physical activity and experienced low levels of physical function, minimal role limitations, high social functioning, low levels of negative mood states, and high social support. With the exception of the correlations between physical activity and physical functioning (ρ = .45), role limitations—physical (ρ = .32), vigor–activity mood state (ρ = .36), and social support from friends (ρ = –.43), there were typically weak associations between physical activity and the subscales of the HRQL and psychosocial functioning measures. These low associations might be the result of the participants’ psychological adaptations to cerebral palsy during their lives.

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Lewis Keane, Emma Sherry, Nico Schulenkorf, Joel Negin, Ding Ding, Adrian Bauman, Edward Jegasothy, and Justin Richards

identified concerns from the women about the ability of their bodies to cope with the rigors of playing netball, as well as potential public embarrassment about their bodies. This aligns with a substantial evidence base that identifies low levels of physical self-efficacy as a major barrier to participation

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Changwook Kim, Jinwon Kim, and Brijesh Thapa

energy consumption, and physical efforts with high-level skills and challenges are required. Given the activity characteristic, individuals who engaged in vigorous LTPA were likely to experience a feeling of high physical self-efficacy by increasing their physical conditioning and fitness. Such benefits

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Annie C. Jeffries, Lee Wallace, Aaron J. Coutts, Shaun J. McLaren, Alan McCall, and Franco M. Impellizzeri

Questionnaire, Perceived scaled questionnaire. a Fatigue questionnaire also called short questionnaire of fatigue based on several different authors. 15 , 16 Single item “other” includes training difficulty, mood state, energy levels, stress, health status, physical self-efficacy, well-being, Hardy and

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Andrew Sortwell, Daniel A. Marinho, Jorge Knijnik, and Ricardo Ferraz

the comparison (control) group Duncan et al. (2018 ) Determine effects of INT fundamental movement skills and physical self-efficacy in children INT group 6.43 ± 0.5 years Control group 6.23 ± 0.7 years Boys Girls Yes INT 10 weeks Once weekly 30- to 40-min sessions 6–10 exercises 1 set 2–10 reps