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Kirsten Legerlotz, Robert Marzilger, Sebastian Bohm, and Adamantios Arampatzis

Purpose:

To understand the mechanisms for the effects of resistance training on functional parameters, and to assess the injury risk of the involved tissues, it is necessary to examine the underlying morphological and structural changes of the respective tissues.

Methods:

The presented information on physiological adaptations have been deduced from cross-sectional studies comparing youth athletes with controls and children with adults as well as from longitudinal studies examining the effects of resistance training in untrained children and adolescents and in youth athletes.

Results:

The evidence indicates, that training induced changes in motor performance rely partly on enhanced neuromuscular control, and partly on morphological adaptation of muscles and tendons, such as changes in muscle, muscle fiber and tendon cross-sectional area, muscle composition, and tendon material properties, with the bone also adapting by increasing bone mineral content and cortical area.

Conclusion:

Although the training induced adaptations of the investigated tissues follows similar principles in children as in adults, the magnitude of the adaptive response appears to be more subtle. As studies investigating physiological adaptation in youth athletes are sparse, more research in this area is warranted to elucidate the specific physiological stimulus-response relationship necessary for effective training programs and injury prevention.

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Samuel T. Tebeck, Jonathan D. Buckley, Clint R. Bellenger, and Jamie Stanley

various physiological adaptations that may be beneficial for competition in the heat. 1 – 3 Exercise performance deteriorates as temperature increases above 10°C. 4 Sweating and skin blood flow are also increased, 5 indicating that a level of heat strain exists even under temperate conditions when the

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K. Anders Ericsson

Traditional theories of aging claim that basic processing speed and memory capacities show inevitable decline with increasing age. Recent research, however, has shown that older experts in some domains are able to maintain their superior performance into old age. but even they display the typical age-related decline in performance on psychometric tests of fluid intelligence. The study of expert performance shows that adults retain the capacity to acquire and maintain performance with the appropriate type of training and practice, even speeded actions and many physiological adaptations. In fact, experts’ performance keeps improving for several decades into adulthood and typically reaches its peak between 30 and 50 years of age. The experts can then maintain their attained performance level into old age by regular deliberate practice. Much of the observed decline in older adults’ performance can be attributed to age-related reductions in engagement in domain-related activities—in particular, regular deliberate practice.

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Deepika Singla and M. Ejaz Hussain

Context: Neuromuscular adaptations following exercise training are believed to enhance sports performance. While abundant research is available on adaptations of the lower body to plyometric training, little is known about adaptations of the upper body to plyometric training. Objective: To examine the effect of plyometric training on neuromuscular adaptations in cricket players of different age groups. Design: Randomized parallel group active-controlled trial. Setting: Research laboratory, school cricket ground, and sports complex field. Participants: Fifty-nine cricket players were randomly assigned to either the experimental group or the control group. Interventions: The experimental group was subjected to 8 weeks of medicine ball plyometric training held thrice per week. Neuromuscular adaptations were analyzed pretraining and posttraining in 3 age groups: <18, 18–25, and >25 years. Analysis of variance was used to ascertain the training effects between and within the 6 subgroups, that is, age group <18 years (control and experimental), age group 18–25 years (control and experimental), and age group >25 years (control and experimental). Main outcome measures: Muscle activation, upper body balance, upper body power, and muscle strength. Results: Out of 59, 55 participants completed the study. Subjects aged <18 years (adolescents) showed significantly greater improvements than those from the groups 18–25 years and >25 years (adults) on upper body balance and upper body power. Significant improvements were observed in the experimental subjects of all age groups on their muscle activity of biceps brachii, upper body balance, and upper body power following medicine ball plyometric training. Conclusions: Though adolescent subjects were found to be more adaptive than adult subjects, experimental subjects showed significantly greater neuromuscular adaptations to medicine ball plyometric training than controls. These findings emphasize the need for coaches and athletic trainers to inculcate medicine ball plyometric exercises in training regimes of cricket players so as to improve their upper body performance.

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R. Pla, Y. Le Meur, A. Aubry, J.F. Toussaint, and P. Hellard

100-m swim time and an incremental swim test on the performance and physiological adaptations, and the perceived well-being and fatigue, in 22 elite swimmers during two 6-week crossover periods of THR and POL training. We expected that the POL training would promote larger improvements in performance

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Naoya Takei, Katsuyuki Kakinoki, Olivier Girard, and Hideo Hatta

lactate concentration response, in turn dictating the nature of physiological adaptations (eg, mitochondrial biogenesis), could be maximized. 15 Moreover, no significant difference was observed for RPE values between the conditions. This observation differs from submaximal and/or longer exercise findings

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Iñigo Mujika, Shona Halson, Louise M. Burke, Gloria Balagué, and Damian Farrow

medium- to long-term physiological adaptations to training, while ignoring the potential acute negative impacts. By contrast, reduced training or taper periods are introduced to diminish the detrimental impact of training while the physiological adaptations achieved during intensive training are further

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Anna K. Melin, Ida A. Heikura, Adam Tenforde, and Margo Mountjoy

) substantially contribute to fuel needs. However, long-term LEA causes metabolic and physiological adaptations in order to reduce total energy expenditure to prevent further weight loss and promote survival, whereby the body obtains a new energy balance steady state ( Loucks, 2014 ). Therefore, an athlete may be

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Yasuki Sekiguchi, Erica M. Filep, Courteney L. Benjamin, Douglas J. Casa, and Lindsay J. DiStefano

Practice, Education, and Further Research The results of the 4 studies included in this critically appraised topic demonstrate that hydration status does not change physiological adaptations in plasma volume, internal body temperature, and skin temperature. While heat acclimation protocols can vary, the

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Erin L. McCleave, Katie M. Slattery, Rob Duffield, Stephen Crowcroft, Chris R. Abbiss, Lee K. Wallace, and Aaron J. Coutts

the environmental stimuli. Tapers are reported to further enhance performance in endurance athletes through reducing negative training influences such as accumulated fatigue, while maintaining appropriate physiological adaptations. 19 , 28 As 20-km TT performance improved immediately following the