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Yasuki Sekiguchi, Erica M. Filep, Courteney L. Benjamin, Douglas J. Casa, and Lindsay J. DiStefano

Practice, Education, and Further Research The results of the 4 studies included in this critically appraised topic demonstrate that hydration status does not change physiological adaptations in plasma volume, internal body temperature, and skin temperature. While heat acclimation protocols can vary, the

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Kirsten Legerlotz, Robert Marzilger, Sebastian Bohm, and Adamantios Arampatzis

Purpose:

To understand the mechanisms for the effects of resistance training on functional parameters, and to assess the injury risk of the involved tissues, it is necessary to examine the underlying morphological and structural changes of the respective tissues.

Methods:

The presented information on physiological adaptations have been deduced from cross-sectional studies comparing youth athletes with controls and children with adults as well as from longitudinal studies examining the effects of resistance training in untrained children and adolescents and in youth athletes.

Results:

The evidence indicates, that training induced changes in motor performance rely partly on enhanced neuromuscular control, and partly on morphological adaptation of muscles and tendons, such as changes in muscle, muscle fiber and tendon cross-sectional area, muscle composition, and tendon material properties, with the bone also adapting by increasing bone mineral content and cortical area.

Conclusion:

Although the training induced adaptations of the investigated tissues follows similar principles in children as in adults, the magnitude of the adaptive response appears to be more subtle. As studies investigating physiological adaptation in youth athletes are sparse, more research in this area is warranted to elucidate the specific physiological stimulus-response relationship necessary for effective training programs and injury prevention.

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José María González-Ravé, Francisco Hermosilla, Fernando González-Mohíno, Arturo Casado, and David B. Pyne

, represents a complex process underpinning the relationship between training stimulation and recovery. It is commonly recognized that physiological adaptations, improvements in skill acquisition, and the refinement of strokes are planned through sequencing training loads over years in a process known as

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Samuel T. Tebeck, Jonathan D. Buckley, Clint R. Bellenger, and Jamie Stanley

various physiological adaptations that may be beneficial for competition in the heat. 1 – 3 Exercise performance deteriorates as temperature increases above 10°C. 4 Sweating and skin blood flow are also increased, 5 indicating that a level of heat strain exists even under temperate conditions when the

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Bent R. Rønnestad, Sjur J. Øfsteng, Fabio Zambolin, Truls Raastad, and Daniel Hammarström

Purpose: To compare the effects of a 1-week high-intensity aerobic-training shock microcycle composed of either 5 short-interval sessions (SI; n = 9, 5 series with 12 × 30-s work intervals interspersed with 15-s recovery and 3-min recovery between series) or 5 long-interval sessions (LI; n = 8, 6 series of 5-min work intervals with 2.5-min recovery between series) on indicators of endurance performance in well-trained cyclists. Methods: Before and following 6 days with standardized training loads after the 1-week high-intensity aerobic-training shock microcycle, both groups were tested in physiological determinants of endurance performance. Results: From pretraining to posttraining, SI achieved a larger improvement than LI in maximal oxygen uptake (5.7%; 95% confidence interval, 1.3–10.3; P = .015) and power output at a blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol·L−1 (3.8%; 95% confidence interval, 0.2–7.4; P = .038). There were no group differences in changes of fractional use of maximal oxygen uptake at a workload corresponding to a blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol·L−1, gross efficiency, or the 1-minute peak power output from the maximal-oxygen-uptake test. Conclusion: The SI protocol may induce superior changes in indicators of endurance performance compared with the LI protocol, indicating that SI can be a good strategy during a 1-week high-intensity aerobic-training shock microcycle in well-trained cyclists.

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Eric D.B. Goulet, Michel O. Mélançon, Mylène Aubertin Leheudre, and Isabelle J. Dionne

It is unclear whether long-term aerobic (AT) or resistance (RT) training can improve insulin sensitivity (IS) beyond the residual effect of the last training bout in older women (54–78 years). Therefore, a group of nonobese, healthy older women underwent 6 months of AT (n = 8) or RT (n = 10), and the authors measured IS 4 days after the last training bouts using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique. Women trained 3 days/week. AT consisted of 25- to 60-min sessions of walking/jogging at 60–95% of maximal heart rate. RT consisted of three sets of nine exercises repeated 10 times at 80% of 1 repetition maximum. AT decreased fat mass, whereas both AT and RT increased fat-free mass. Neither training program, however, improved absolute or relative rates of glucose disposal. The authors therefore concluded that nonobese, healthy older women should perform AT or RT on a daily basis in order to improve IS and maintain the improvement.

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R. Pla, Y. Le Meur, A. Aubry, J.F. Toussaint, and P. Hellard

100-m swim time and an incremental swim test on the performance and physiological adaptations, and the perceived well-being and fatigue, in 22 elite swimmers during two 6-week crossover periods of THR and POL training. We expected that the POL training would promote larger improvements in performance

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Naoya Takei, Katsuyuki Kakinoki, Olivier Girard, and Hideo Hatta

lactate concentration response, in turn dictating the nature of physiological adaptations (eg, mitochondrial biogenesis), could be maximized. 15 Moreover, no significant difference was observed for RPE values between the conditions. This observation differs from submaximal and/or longer exercise findings

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Iñigo Mujika, Shona Halson, Louise M. Burke, Gloria Balagué, and Damian Farrow

medium- to long-term physiological adaptations to training, while ignoring the potential acute negative impacts. By contrast, reduced training or taper periods are introduced to diminish the detrimental impact of training while the physiological adaptations achieved during intensive training are further

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Anna K. Melin, Ida A. Heikura, Adam Tenforde, and Margo Mountjoy

) substantially contribute to fuel needs. However, long-term LEA causes metabolic and physiological adaptations in order to reduce total energy expenditure to prevent further weight loss and promote survival, whereby the body obtains a new energy balance steady state ( Loucks, 2014 ). Therefore, an athlete may be