Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 132 items for :

  • "physiological adaptations" x
Clear All
Restricted access

Kirsten Legerlotz, Robert Marzilger, Sebastian Bohm and Adamantios Arampatzis

Purpose:

To understand the mechanisms for the effects of resistance training on functional parameters, and to assess the injury risk of the involved tissues, it is necessary to examine the underlying morphological and structural changes of the respective tissues.

Methods:

The presented information on physiological adaptations have been deduced from cross-sectional studies comparing youth athletes with controls and children with adults as well as from longitudinal studies examining the effects of resistance training in untrained children and adolescents and in youth athletes.

Results:

The evidence indicates, that training induced changes in motor performance rely partly on enhanced neuromuscular control, and partly on morphological adaptation of muscles and tendons, such as changes in muscle, muscle fiber and tendon cross-sectional area, muscle composition, and tendon material properties, with the bone also adapting by increasing bone mineral content and cortical area.

Conclusion:

Although the training induced adaptations of the investigated tissues follows similar principles in children as in adults, the magnitude of the adaptive response appears to be more subtle. As studies investigating physiological adaptation in youth athletes are sparse, more research in this area is warranted to elucidate the specific physiological stimulus-response relationship necessary for effective training programs and injury prevention.

Open access

Yasuki Sekiguchi, Erica M. Filep, Courteney L. Benjamin, Douglas J. Casa and Lindsay J. DiStefano

Practice, Education, and Further Research The results of the 4 studies included in this critically appraised topic demonstrate that hydration status does not change physiological adaptations in plasma volume, internal body temperature, and skin temperature. While heat acclimation protocols can vary, the

Restricted access

Samuel T. Tebeck, Jonathan D. Buckley, Clint R. Bellenger and Jamie Stanley

various physiological adaptations that may be beneficial for competition in the heat. 1 – 3 Exercise performance deteriorates as temperature increases above 10°C. 4 Sweating and skin blood flow are also increased, 5 indicating that a level of heat strain exists even under temperate conditions when the

Restricted access

Eric D.B. Goulet, Michel O. Mélançon, Mylène Aubertin Leheudre and Isabelle J. Dionne

It is unclear whether long-term aerobic (AT) or resistance (RT) training can improve insulin sensitivity (IS) beyond the residual effect of the last training bout in older women (54–78 years). Therefore, a group of nonobese, healthy older women underwent 6 months of AT (n = 8) or RT (n = 10), and the authors measured IS 4 days after the last training bouts using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique. Women trained 3 days/week. AT consisted of 25- to 60-min sessions of walking/jogging at 60–95% of maximal heart rate. RT consisted of three sets of nine exercises repeated 10 times at 80% of 1 repetition maximum. AT decreased fat mass, whereas both AT and RT increased fat-free mass. Neither training program, however, improved absolute or relative rates of glucose disposal. The authors therefore concluded that nonobese, healthy older women should perform AT or RT on a daily basis in order to improve IS and maintain the improvement.

Restricted access

R. Pla, Y. Le Meur, A. Aubry, J.F. Toussaint and P. Hellard

100-m swim time and an incremental swim test on the performance and physiological adaptations, and the perceived well-being and fatigue, in 22 elite swimmers during two 6-week crossover periods of THR and POL training. We expected that the POL training would promote larger improvements in performance

Restricted access

Iñigo Mujika, Shona Halson, Louise M. Burke, Gloria Balagué and Damian Farrow

medium- to long-term physiological adaptations to training, while ignoring the potential acute negative impacts. By contrast, reduced training or taper periods are introduced to diminish the detrimental impact of training while the physiological adaptations achieved during intensive training are further

Open access

Anna K. Melin, Ida A. Heikura, Adam Tenforde and Margo Mountjoy

) substantially contribute to fuel needs. However, long-term LEA causes metabolic and physiological adaptations in order to reduce total energy expenditure to prevent further weight loss and promote survival, whereby the body obtains a new energy balance steady state ( Loucks, 2014 ). Therefore, an athlete may be

Restricted access

Erin L. McCleave, Katie M. Slattery, Rob Duffield, Stephen Crowcroft, Chris R. Abbiss, Lee K. Wallace and Aaron J. Coutts

the environmental stimuli. Tapers are reported to further enhance performance in endurance athletes through reducing negative training influences such as accumulated fatigue, while maintaining appropriate physiological adaptations. 19 , 28 As 20-km TT performance improved immediately following the

Restricted access

Bryan L. Riemann, Nancy Caggiano Tray and Scott M. Lephart

Objectives:

To determine the physiological adaptations that might occur with a 4-week unilateral multiaxial training program in lower leg kinesthesia, peak torque, and postural control.

Study Design:

True experimental pretest-posttest control-group design.

Setting:

Research laboratory.

Subjects:

26 healthy, active subjects (14 men, 12 women).

Interventions:

Subjects were assigned to an experimental or control group. The experimental group performed multiaxial coordination training 3 days/wk for 4 weeks.

Main Outcome Measures:

Both groups were tested 3 times, pretest and 2 and 4 weeks after training was initiated. Outcome measures included conscious appreciation of ankle kinesthesia, eversion and dorsiflexion isokinetic peak torque, and static and functional postural control.

Results:

Results revealed a significant Group × Test interaction only for inversion kinesthesia.

Conclusions:

Four weeks of multiaxial coordination training did not significantly improve any of the dependent variables in healthy individuals. Further research should consider the effects of such a program on injured subjects.

Restricted access

Ira Jacobs, Ethan Ruderman and Mackenzie McLaughlin

A traditional focus of exercise scientists studying the interaction of drugs and exercise has been on the effects of drugs on exercise performance or functional capacity. In contrast, there is limited information available about the effects of exercise on the efficacy of drugs that have been prescribed and ingested for therapeutic reasons. Those requesting the approval for the manufacture, distribution, and sale of new drugs to the public are required to submit evidence of drug effectiveness and safety to drug regulatory bodies. But, there is no associated requirement to include among that evidence the interactions of exercise with drugs. However, the physiological adaptations to acute and chronic exercise are such that there is good reason to suspect that exercise has the potential to significantly influence drug absorption and bioavailability, drug distribution within the body, and drug elimination from the body. This paper reviews the potential for interaction between exercise and pharmacokinetics.