and physiological demands on the players, less is known as to the impact these have on the referee. There has been limited research into the physical demands of rugby union refereeing, notable investigations being with English Premiership officials 5 and New Zealand Division 2 referees. 6 More
Matthew R. Blair, Nathan Elsworthy, Nancy J. Rehrer, Chris Button and Nicholas D. Gill
Amy Brightmore, John O’Hara, Kevin Till, Steve Cobley, Tate Hubka, Stacey Emmonds and Carlton Cooke
To evaluate the movement and physiological demands of Australasian National Rugby League (NRL) referees, officiating with a 2-referee (ie, lead and pocket) system, and to compare the demands of the lead and pocket referees.
Global positioning system devices (10 Hz) were used to obtain 86 data sets (lead, n = 41; pocket, n = 45) on 19 NRL referees. Total distance, relative distance covered, and heart rate per half and across match play were examined within and between referees using t tests. Distance, time, and number of movement “efforts” were examined in 6 velocity classifications (ie, standing <0.5, walking 0.51–2.0, jogging 2.01–4.0, running 4.01–5.5, high-speed running 5.51–7.0, and sprinting >7.0 m/s) using analysis of variance. Cohen d effect sizes are reported.
There were no significant differences between the lead and pocket referees for any movement or physiological variable. There was an overall significant (large, very large) effect for distance (% distance) and time (% time) (P < .001) between velocity classifications for both the lead and pocket referees. Both roles covered the largest distance and number of efforts at velocities of 0.51–2.0 m/s and 2.01–4.0 m/s, which were interspersed with efforts >5.51 m/s.
Findings highlight the intermittent nature of rugby league refereeing but show that there were no differences in the movement and physiological demands of the 2 refereeing roles. Findings are valuable for those responsible for the preparation, training, and conditioning of NRL referees and to ensure that training prepares for and simulates match demands.
Aaron T. Scanlan, Daniel M. Berkelmans, William M. Vickery and Crystal O. Kean
Cricket is a popular international team sport with various game formats ranging from long-duration multiday tests to short-duration Twenty20 game play. The role of batsmen is critical to all game formats, with differing physiological demands imposed during each format. Investigation of the physiological demands imposed during cricket batting has historically been neglected, with much of the research focusing on bowling responses and batting technique. A greater understanding of the physiological demands of the batting role in cricket is required to assist strength and conditioning professionals and coaches with the design of training plans, recovery protocols, and player-management strategies. This brief review provides an updated synthesis of the literature examining the internal (eg, metabolic demands and heart rate) and external (eg, activity work rates) physiological responses to batting in the various game formats, as well as simulated play and small-sided-games training. Although few studies have been done in this area, the summary of data provides important insight regarding physiological responses to batting and highlights that more research on this topic is required. Future research is recommended to combine internal and external measures during actual game play, as well as comparing different game formats and playing levels. In addition, understanding the relationship between batting technique and physiological responses is warranted to gain a more holistic understanding of batting in cricket, as well as to develop appropriate coaching and training strategies.
Louise Croft, Suzanne Dybrus, John Lenton and Victoria Goosey-Tolfrey
To examine the physiological profiles of wheelchair basketball and tennis and specifically to: (a) identify if there are differences in the physiological profiles of wheelchair basketball and tennis players of a similar playing standard, (b) to determine whether the competitive physiological demands of these sports differed (c) and to explore the relationship between the blood lactate [Bla−] response to exercise and to identify the sport specific heart rate (HR) training zones.
Six elite athletes (4 male, 2 female) from each sport performed a submaximal and VO2 peak test in their sport specific wheelchair. Heart rate, VO2, and [Bla−] were measured. Heart rate was monitored during international competitions and VO2 was calculated from this using linear regression equations. Individual HR training zones were identified from the [Bla–] profile and time spent within these zones was calculated for each match.
Despite no differences in the laboratory assessment of HRpeak, the VO2peak was higher for the basketball players when compared with the tennis players (2.98 ± 0.91 vs 2.06 ± 0.71; P = .08). Average match HR (163 ± 11 vs 146 ± 16 beats-min–1; P = .06) and average VO2 (2.26 ± 0.06 vs 1.36 ± 0.42 L-min-1; P = .02) were higher during actual playing time of basketball when compared with whole tennis play. Consequently, differences in the time spent in the different training zones within and between the two sports existed (P < .05).
Wheelchair basketball requires predominately high-intensity training, whereas tennis training requires training across the exercise intensity spectrum.
Paul G. Montgomery and Brendan D. Maloney
or without the use of wearable technology. Research into the physiological demands of basketball with a decreased playing area in a 3 × 3 player format are also limited and do not reflect elite 3 × 3 competition. 8 , 9 Although heart rate can vary greatly among individuals, it has been considered a
Andrew D. White and Niall MacFarlane
The current study assessed the impact of full-game (FG) and time-on-pitch (TOP) procedures for global-positioning-system (GPS) analysis on the commonly used markers of physical performance in elite field hockey.
Sixteen international male field hockey players, age 19–30, were studied (yielding 73 player analyses over 8 games). Physical activity was recorded using a 5-Hz GPS.
Distance covered, player load, maximum velocity, high-acceleration efforts, and distance covered at specified speed zones were all agreeable for both analysis procedures (P > .05). However, percentage time spent in 0–6 km/h was higher for FG (ES: –21% to –16%; P < .001), whereas the percentage time in all other speed zones (1.67–3.06 m/s, 3.06–4.17 m/s, 4.17–5.28 m/s, and > 6.39 m/s) and relative distance (m/min) were higher for TOP (ES: 8–10%, 2–7%, 2–3%, 1–1%, 0–1%, respectively; P < .001).
These data demonstrate that GPS analysis procedures should be appropriate for the nature of the sport being studied. In field hockey, TOP and FG analysis procedures are comparable for distance-related variables but significantly different for time-dependent factors. Using inappropriate analysis procedures can alter the perceived physiological demand of elite field hockey because of “rolling” substitutions. Inaccurate perception of physiological demand could negatively influence training prescription (for both intensity and volume).
Paul G. Montgomery, David B. Pyne and Clare L. Minahan
To characterize the physical and physiological responses during different basketball practice drills and games.
Male basketball players (n = 11; 19.1 ± 2.1 y, 1.91 ± 0.09 m, 87.9 ± 15.1 kg; mean ± SD) completed offensive and defensive practice drills, half court 5on5 scrimmage play, and competitive games. Heart rate, VO2 and triaxial accelerometer data (physical demand) were normalized for individual participation time. Data were log-transformed and differences between drills and games standardized for interpretation of magnitudes and reported with the effect size (ES) statistic.
There was no substantial difference in the physical or physiological variables between offensive and defensive drills; physical load (9.5%; 90% confidence limits ±45); mean heart rate (-2.4%; ±4.2); peak heart rate (-0.9%; ±3.4); and VO2 (–5.7%; ±9.1). Physical load was moderately greater in game play compared with a 5on5 scrimmage (85.2%; ±40.5); with a higher mean heart rate (12.4%; ±5.4). The oxygen demand for live play was substantially larger than 5on5 (30.6%; ±15.6).
Defensive and offensive drills during basketball practice have similar physiological responses and physical demand. Live play is substantially more demanding than a 5on5 scrimmage in both physical and physiological attributes. Accelerometers and predicted oxygen cost from heart rate monitoring systems are useful for differentiating the practice and competition demands of basketball.
Barry S. Mason, Rienk M.A. van der Slikke, Michael J. Hutchinson, Monique A.M. Berger and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey
performance in wheelchair sports. Minimal changes in physiological demand were also observed between game formats despite clear changes in activity profiles, which may be a limitation of the HR-based methods used. Previous studies have reported similar findings during SSGs, 23 , 25 which could be attributed
Andrea Nicolò, Marco Montini, Michele Girardi, Francesco Felici, Ilenia Bazzucchi and Massimo Sacchetti
quantify the physiological demand of the player performing movements, such as accelerations, decelerations, and directional changes, often at high intensities, which are crucial components of soccer matches. 2 The importance of quantifying the physiological demand of training relies on its fundamental role
Patrick G. Campbell, Jonathan M. Peake and Geoffrey M. Minett
The specificity of training principle states that training adaptations are closely related to the training stimulus and is considered important to optimize physical performance. 1 Training practices in rugby union have predominantly focused on the physical and physiological demands of match play