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Craig A. Bridge, Michelle A. Jones and Barry Drust


To investigate the physiological responses and perceived exertion during international Taekwondo competition.


Eight male Taekwondo black belts (mean ± SD, age 22 ± 4 y, body mass 69.4 ± 13.4 kg, height 1.82 ± 0.10 m, competition experience 9 ± 5 y) took part in an international-level Taekwondo competition. Each combat included three 2-min rounds with 30 s of recovery between each round. Heart rate (HR) was recorded at 5-s intervals during each combat. Capillary blood lactate samples were taken from the fingertip 1 min before competition, directly after each round and 1 min after competition. Competitors’ rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was recorded for each round using Borg’s 6-to-20 scale.


HR (round 1: 175 ± 15 to round 3: 187 ± 8 beats·min−1; P < .05), percentage of HR maximum (round 1: 89 ± 8 to round 3: 96 ± 5% HRmax; P < .05), blood lactate (round 1: 7.5 ± 1.6 to round 3: 11.9 ± 2.1 mmol·L-1; P < .05) and RPE (round 1: 11 ± 2 to round 3: 14 ± 2; P < .05; mean ± SD) increased significantly across rounds.


International-level Taekwondo competition elicited near-maximal cardiovascular responses, high blood lactate concentrations, and increases in competitors' RPE across combat. Training should therefore include exercise bouts that sufficiently stimulate both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism.

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Pedro G. Morouço, Tiago M. Barbosa, Raul Arellano and João P. Vilas-Boas

The mainstream procedure to monitor elite swimmers’ performance is to conduct either physiological or biomechanical assessments. With the assessments performed separately, it is challenging to provide a well rounded and holistic insight of the swimmer’s performance (ie, swimming speed). Swimming

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Robert MacKenzie, Linda Monaghan, Robert A. Masson, Alice K. Werner, Tansinee S. Caprez, Lynsey Johnston and Ole J. Kemi

or under-represented females, and rarely established the relative importance of individual characteristics compared with others. For instance, the 2 sexes may not share some or any characteristics. 11 Therefore, information on physical and physiological parameters that dictate progress in climbing

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Michael Kellmann, Maurizio Bertollo, Laurent Bosquet, Michel Brink, Aaron J. Coutts, Rob Duffield, Daniel Erlacher, Shona L. Halson, Anne Hecksteden, Jahan Heidari, K. Wolfgang Kallus, Romain Meeusen, Iñigo Mujika, Claudio Robazza, Sabrina Skorski, Ranel Venter and Jürgen Beckmann

Definition of Central Terms Recovery is regarded as a multifaceted (eg, physiological, psychological) restorative process relative to time. In case an individual’s recovery status (ie, his or her biopsychosocial balance) is disturbed by external or internal factors, fatigue as a condition of

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Edward J. Masoro

Although physiological deterioration occurs with advancing adult age, the interpretation of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of age-changes in physiological processes are often complicated by confounders unrelated to aging. Age-associated disease is a major cause of physiological deterioration. To avoid this factor, only subjects free of discernible disease are used in many studies of what is referred to as “normal” aging. However, it is important to recognize that age-associated disease is not only a common occurrence but also an integral part of aging. Increasingly, gene-environment interactions are recognized as playing a major role in age-associated physiological deterioration, and there is great individual variation in both the rate of aging and the occurrence of age-associated physiological deterioration.

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Danielle M. Dobney, Scott G. Thomas, Tim Taha and Michelle Keightley

. Previous studies have provided a breadth of information regarding neuropsychological and concussion symptoms at baseline in this population. 6 – 9 Few studies exist that have examined physiological, mood, and neuromuscular performance measures as part of a concussion baseline assessment. Animal research

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Matthew R. Blair, Nathan Elsworthy, Nancy J. Rehrer, Chris Button and Nicholas D. Gill

and physiological demands on the players, less is known as to the impact these have on the referee. There has been limited research into the physical demands of rugby union refereeing, notable investigations being with English Premiership officials 5 and New Zealand Division 2 referees. 6 More

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Mark Glaister and Conor Gissane

receptor subtype involved, has made it difficult to identify the precise mechanisms by which caffeine exerts its ergogenic effect. One of the problems with trying to evaluate the mechanisms by which caffeine improves high-intensity endurance performance is that the associated physiological responses are

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Ana B. Peinado, Nuria Romero-Parra, Miguel A. Rojo-Tirado, Rocío Cupeiro, Javier Butragueño, Eliane A. Castro, Francisco J. Calderón and Pedro J. Benito

Road cycling is a highly demanding sport where cyclists’ overall performance is dependent on physiological responses and team strategies. 1 Previous studies have already described the physiology of professional road cycling 2 , 3 during the most prestigious 3-week competition races (Tour de

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Paula B. Costa, Scott R. Richmond, Charles R. Smith, Brad Currier, Richard A. Stecker, Brad T. Gieske, Kimi Kemp, Kyle E. Witherbee and Chad M. Kerksick

expenditure in a group of elite Japanese synchronized swimmers (19.8 [2.8] y, 159.0 [3.0] cm, 52.5 [2.7] kg) to be 2738 (672) kcals/d and a calculated physical activity level to be 2.18 (0.43). In addition, Yamamura et al 11 assessed various physiological characteristics of well-trained synchronized swimmer