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Craig A. Bridge, Michelle A. Jones, and Barry Drust

Purpose:

To investigate the physiological responses and perceived exertion during international Taekwondo competition.

Methods:

Eight male Taekwondo black belts (mean ± SD, age 22 ± 4 y, body mass 69.4 ± 13.4 kg, height 1.82 ± 0.10 m, competition experience 9 ± 5 y) took part in an international-level Taekwondo competition. Each combat included three 2-min rounds with 30 s of recovery between each round. Heart rate (HR) was recorded at 5-s intervals during each combat. Capillary blood lactate samples were taken from the fingertip 1 min before competition, directly after each round and 1 min after competition. Competitors’ rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was recorded for each round using Borg’s 6-to-20 scale.

Results:

HR (round 1: 175 ± 15 to round 3: 187 ± 8 beats·min−1; P < .05), percentage of HR maximum (round 1: 89 ± 8 to round 3: 96 ± 5% HRmax; P < .05), blood lactate (round 1: 7.5 ± 1.6 to round 3: 11.9 ± 2.1 mmol·L-1; P < .05) and RPE (round 1: 11 ± 2 to round 3: 14 ± 2; P < .05; mean ± SD) increased significantly across rounds.

Conclusions:

International-level Taekwondo competition elicited near-maximal cardiovascular responses, high blood lactate concentrations, and increases in competitors' RPE across combat. Training should therefore include exercise bouts that sufficiently stimulate both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism.

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Pedro G. Morouço, Tiago M. Barbosa, Raul Arellano, and João P. Vilas-Boas

The mainstream procedure to monitor elite swimmers’ performance is to conduct either physiological or biomechanical assessments. With the assessments performed separately, it is challenging to provide a well rounded and holistic insight of the swimmer’s performance (ie, swimming speed). Swimming

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Molly J. Murphy, Blake R. Rushing, Susan J. Sumner, and Anthony C. Hackney

Dietary supplements marketed as “ergogenic aids” are increasingly popular among international and U.S. collegiate and elite-level athletes. Ergogenic dietary supplements are promoted with claims of enhancing performance by improving strength, endurance, or other physiological attributes, though the

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Devin G. McCarthy, Kate A. Wickham, Tyler F. Vermeulen, Danielle L. Nyman, Shane Ferth, Jamie M. Pereira, Dennis J. Larson, Jamie F. Burr, and Lawrence L. Spriet

precise and powerful movements in combination with cognitive strategies. 3 Moving while carrying large protective padding defines the physiological and thermoregulatory challenges of the goaltender. Although these have not been quantified, they can be estimated through sweat data. Two groups of junior

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Michael Kellmann, Maurizio Bertollo, Laurent Bosquet, Michel Brink, Aaron J. Coutts, Rob Duffield, Daniel Erlacher, Shona L. Halson, Anne Hecksteden, Jahan Heidari, K. Wolfgang Kallus, Romain Meeusen, Iñigo Mujika, Claudio Robazza, Sabrina Skorski, Ranel Venter, and Jürgen Beckmann

Definition of Central Terms Recovery is regarded as a multifaceted (eg, physiological, psychological) restorative process relative to time. In case an individual’s recovery status (ie, his or her biopsychosocial balance) is disturbed by external or internal factors, fatigue as a condition of

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Alexandra M. Coates, Jordan A. Berard, Trevor J. King, and Jamie F. Burr

Predicting ultramarathon running performance is a unique challenge, as ultramarathon races can vary greatly in distance, duration, and physiological demand. Ultramarathon running races range from any race exceeding the marathon distance (>42.2 km) to multiday events and commonly include diverse

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Robert MacKenzie, Linda Monaghan, Robert A. Masson, Alice K. Werner, Tansinee S. Caprez, Lynsey Johnston, and Ole J. Kemi

or under-represented females, and rarely established the relative importance of individual characteristics compared with others. For instance, the 2 sexes may not share some or any characteristics. 11 Therefore, information on physical and physiological parameters that dictate progress in climbing

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Gordon G. Sleivert

Wireless microtechnologies are rapidly emerging as useful tools for sport scientists to move their work out of the laboratory and into the field. The purpose of this report is to describe some of the practical aspects of using ingestible radiotelemetric temperature sensors in sport physiology. Information is also presented to demonstrate the utility of this technology in understanding individual differences in coping with environmental stress, optimizing heat adaptation, and fine-tuning competition strategy (pacing). Wireless core-temperature technology has already revolutionized field monitoring of elite athletes training and competing in extreme environments. These technologies are valuable tools for sport scientists to better understand the interaction between the physiology of exercise and the environment.

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Matt Brearley, Ian Norton, David Kingsbury, and Simon Maas

Introduction:

Anecdotal reports suggest that elite road motorcyclists suffer from high core body temperatures and physiological and perceptual strain when competing in hot conditions.

Methods:

Four male non-heat-acclimatized elite motorcyclists (3 Superbike, 1 Supersport) had their gastrointestinal temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate measured and recorded throughout practice, qualifying, and race sessions of an Australian Superbike and Supersport Championship round contested in tropical conditions. Physiological strain was calculated during the sessions, and fluid-balance measures were taken during practice and qualifying. Rider thermal sensation was assessed immediately postsession.

Results:

Mean ambient temperature and relative humidity were 29.5–30.2°C and 64.5–68.7%, respectively, across the sessions. Gastrointestinal temperature rose from 37.6°C to 37.7°C presession at a median rate of 0.035°C, 0.037°C ,and 0.067°C/min during practice, qualifying, and race sessions to reach medians of 38.9°C, 38.8°C, and 39.1°C postsession, respectively. The peak postsession gastrointestinal temperature was 39.8°C. Median heart rates were ~164, 160, and 177 beats/min during the respective practice, qualifying, and race sessions, contributing to median physiological strain of 5.5, 5.6, and 6.2 across the sessions. Sweat rates were 1.01 and 0.90 L/h during practice and qualifying sessions, while rider thermal sensation was very hot after each session.

Conclusions:

This investigation confirms that elite road motorcyclists endure moderate to high physiological strain during practice, qualifying, and race sessions, exhibiting more-rapid rates of body-heat storage, higher core body temperatures, and higher physiological and perceptual strain than their stock-car-racing counterparts when competing in tropical conditions.

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Jessica M. Stephens, Shona Halson, Joanna Miller, Gary J. Slater, and Christopher D. Askew

The use of cold-water immersion (CWI) for postexercise recovery has become increasingly prevalent in recent years, but there is a dearth of strong scientific evidence to support the optimization of protocols for performance benefits. While the increase in practice and popularity of CWI has led to multiple studies and reviews in the area of water immersion, the research has predominantly focused on performance outcomes associated with postexercise CWI. Studies to date have generally shown positive results with enhanced recovery of performance. However, there are a small number of studies that have shown CWI to have either no effect or a detrimental effect on the recovery of performance. The rationale for such contradictory responses has received little attention but may be related to nuances associated with individuals that may need to be accounted for in optimizing prescription of protocols. To recommend optimal protocols to enhance athletic recovery, research must provide a greater understanding of the physiology underpinning performance change and the factors that may contribute to the varied responses currently observed. This review focuses specifically on why some of the current literature may show variability and disparity in the effectiveness of CWI for recovery of athletic performance by examining the body temperature and cardiovascular responses underpinning CWI and how they are related to performance benefits. This review also examines how individual characteristics (such as physique traits), differences in water-immersion protocol (depth, duration, temperature), and exercise type (endurance vs maximal) interact with these mechanisms.