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Tomoko Aoki, Shinichi Furuya and Hiroshi Kinoshita

Using fast tapping tasks with each of the four fingers (single-finger tapping) and with two of the fingers used alternately (double-finger tapping), the ability to make rapid tapping movement by the individual fingers was compared between expert pianists and nonmusician controls in both genders. Maximal pinch and grasp forces were also measured to assess strength of individual fingers and whole hand, respectively. Movement of the ring and little fingers was slower than that of the index and middle fingers in both the pianists and controls. The slowness of the ring and little fingers was, however, much less evident in the pianists than the controls in both tapping tasks. The pianists also had smaller intertap interval variability for the index and middle fingers. No pianist–control difference was found for the pinch and grasp forces. Piano training, therefore, effectively changed the ability to move individual fingers rapidly, but not their flexor strength. No gender difference was found in any of the tapping tasks though males had greater strength. Gender thus does not appear to be a factor differentiating the ability to move individual fingers rapidly.

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Bruce A. Kay, Michael T. Turvey and Onno G. Meijer

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Elizabeth L. Stegemöller, Joshua R. Tatz, Alison Warnecke, Paul Hibbing, Brandon Bates and Andrew Zaman

of Helsinki and its later amendments. Table 1 Demographic and Music Experience Data for Each Participant Subject Gender Handedness Age Ethnicity Instrument Years of Formal Training 1 F R 21 White Clarinet and piano 2 2 F R 21 White Trumpet, baritone, and voice 5 3 F R 20 White Saxophone, piano, and

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Mark Holten Mora-Jensen, Pascal Madeleine and Ernst Albin Hansen

displacement of fingers during piano playing at increased tempo in skilled pianists ( Bella & Palmer, 2011 ). Second, it was based on the finding showing that timing and force development are tightly intertwined in tapping ( Sternad, Dean, & Newell, 2000 ). Methods Participants A total of 24 (11 males and 13

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Alexei Wong, Marcos A. Sanchez-Gonzalez, Won-Mok Son, Yi-Sub Kwak and Song-Young Park

. 2003 ; 157 : 821 – 7 . PubMed ID: 12912790 doi:10.1001/archpedi.157.8.821 12912790 10.1001/archpedi.157.8.821 11. de Mello M , de Piano A , Carnier J , et al . Long-term effects of aerobic plus resistance training on the metabolic syndrome and adiponectinemia in obese adolescents . J Clin

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Howard N. Zelaznik

example is a concert pianist. For many, piano practice involves the use of a metronome to allow the performer to instantiate the time signature intended by the composer. Although perhaps not rigorously stated, the teacher assumes that the performer/student uses the metronome to develop an internal

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Shannon Gadbois, Anne Bowker, Linda Rose-Krasnor and Leanne Findlay

& Larson, 2007 ; Mahoney, Harris, & Eccles, 2006 ). Structured activities are regularly scheduled, goal-directed, and adult-supervised and typically progress in a developmental fashion (e.g.,  Mahoney, Larson, Eccles, & Lord, 2005 ) such as progressing through grades in piano instruction. In contrast

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Mohamed Abdelmegeed, Everett Lohman, Noha Daher, June Kume and Hasan M. Syed

subjects for the possible source of ulnar wrist pain with some provocative maneuvers at baseline. These tests were the Piano Key Test, Piano Key Sign, the TFCC Compression Test (also known as Ulno-Carpal Stress Test, Ulnar Impingement Test), Ulna Fovea sign, Press Test (also known as Sitting Hand Test), 19

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Dean J. McNamara, Tim J. Gabbett, Peter Blanch and Luke Kelly

% (Stalker Pro, Stalker Sports Radar, Piano, TX) positioned at the batter’s end of the cricket pitch. 13 No bowling-velocity feedback was provided to the bowlers. A relative ball-velocity score was calculated as a percentage of the individual bowler’s peak ball velocity across the 24 balls bowled

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Carol M. Vos, Denise M. Saint Arnault, Laura M. Struble, Nancy A. Gallagher and Janet L. Larson

in-house activities, such as seated exercises; craft classes, such as sewing and painting; and social events, like piano recitals and sing-alongs. Depending on resident interest, outside trips to restaurants, shopping centers, and other destinations were offered weekly or monthly. All facilities