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Mark L. Latash and Irina L. Mikaelian

We explored the relations between task difficulty and speech time in picture description tasks. Six native speakers of Mandarin Chinese (CH group) and six native speakers or Indo-European languages (IE group) produced quick and accurate verbal descriptions of pictures in a self-paced manner. The pictures always involved two objects, a plate and one of the three objects (a stick, a fork, or a knife) located and oriented differently with respect to the plate in different trials. An index of difficulty was assigned to each picture. CH group showed lower reaction time and much lower speech time. Speech time scaled linearly with the log-transformed index of difficulty in all subjects. The results suggest generality of Fitts’ law for movement and speech tasks, and possibly for other cognitive tasks as well. The differences between the CH and IE groups may be due to specific task features, differences in the grammatical rules of CH and IE languages, and possible use of tone for information transmission.

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Ramesh Kaipa, Bethany Howard, Roha Kaipa, Eric Turcat, and Laurielle Prema

phonation, conversation, reading, and picture description tasks. Results indicated that there were no significant differences between the two groups on three tasks. However, there was a significant difference between the two groups with regard to vocal intensity only during the picture description task

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Maike Tietjens, Dennis Dreiskaemper, Till Utesch, Nadja Schott, Lisa M. Barnett, and Trina Hinkley

draw pictures reflecting the overall dimension—in this example—of ‘strength.’ The wording of the item was then explained in a suitable picture description (e.g., “This boy is pretty strong.”/“This boy isn’t very strong.” cf. wording of Barnett et al., 2015 ). This was illustrated in a child

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Yolanda Barrado-Martín, Michelle Heward, Remco Polman, and Samuel R. Nyman

perceived as not useful, unclear, and with inconsistent (picture description) instructions, which failed to show the progression of the movements (see Table  3 for example quotes). Participants’ Reactions to the Intervention Subthemes contained by this overarching theme relate to the way participants