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Noah X. Tocci, David R. Howell, Dai Sugimoto, Corey Dawkins, Amy Whited and Donald Bae

-related injury. 9 , 11 , 18 Lower extremity movement, in particular pelvis movement, is one fundamental aspect to proper pitching mechanics. 9 , 19 , 20 Specifically, the pelvis acts as the foundation to the throwing motion, and serves an integral role in the transfer of energy during a pitch. 21

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Arnel L. Aguinaldo, Janet Buttermore and Henry Chambers

High rotational torques during baseball pitching are believed to be linked to most overuse injuries at the shoulder. This study investigated the effects of trunk rotation on shoulder rotational torques during pitching. A total of 38 pitchers from the professional, college, high school, and youth ranks were recruited for motion analysis. Professional pitchers demonstrated the least amount of rotational torque (p = .001) among skeletally mature players, while exhibiting the ability to rotate their trunks significantly later in the pitching cycle, as compared to other groups (p = .01). It was concluded that the timing of their rotation was optimized as to allow the throwing shoulder to move with decreased joint loading by conserving the momentum generated by the trunk. These results suggest that a specific pattern in throwing can be utilized to increase the efficiency of the pitch, which would allow a player to improve performance with decreased risk of overuse injury.

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Adam Culiver, J. Craig Garrison, Kalyssa M. Creed, John E. Conway, Shiho Goto and Sherry Werner

capture analysis of pitching mechanics. Participants completed all clinical measurements in a random order prior to completing motion capture analysis. Hip ER and internal rotation (IR) PROM were measured with the subject lying prone, while the limb being measured was bent in 90° of knee flexion; 1

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Hardeep Singh, Mark Lee, Matthew J. Solomito, Christian Merrill and Carl Nissen

presumed to utilize lumbar motion primarily along the transverse or coronal planes. First, the spine motion diagrams in this work are derived from pitchers without back or shoulder complaints could be utilized as a comparative norm for future studies that attempt to change pitching mechanics to alleviate a

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Osamu Yanagisawa, Kenta Wakamatsu and Hidenori Taniguchi

. Influence of pelvis rotation styles on baseball pitching mechanics . Sports Biomech . 2004 ; 3 : 67 – 84 . PubMed ID: 15079989 doi:10.1080/14763140408522831 10.1080/14763140408522831 15079989 8. Robb AJ , Fleisig G , Wilk K , Macrina L , Bolt B , Pajaczkowski J . Passive ranges of motion

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Rafael F. Escamilla, Jonathan S. Slowik, Alek Z. Diffendaffer and Glenn S. Fleisig

baseball . Sports Biomech . 2016 ; 15 ( 2 ): 128 – 138 . PubMed ID: 27110899 doi:10.1080/14763141.2016.1159319 27110899 10.1080/14763141.2016.1159319 18. Lyman S , Fleisig GS , Andrews JR , Osinski ED . Effect of pitch type, pitch count, and pitching mechanics on risk of elbow and shoulder

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Brett S. Pexa, Eric D. Ryan, Elizabeth E. Hibberd, Elizabeth Teel, Terri Jo Rucinski and Joseph B. Myers

pitch type, pitch count, and pitching mechanics on risk of elbow and shoulder pain in youth baseball pitchers . Am J Sports Med . 2002 ; 30 ( 4 ): 463 – 468 . 12130397 6. Lyman S , Fleisig GS , Waterbor J , et al . Longitudunal study of elbow and shoulder pain in youth baseball pitchers

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Gretchen D. Oliver, Jessica K. Washington, Sarah S. Gascon, Hillary A. Plummer, Rafael F. Escamilla and James R. Andrews

. Oliver GD , Plummer H , Henning L , et al . Effects of a simulated game on upper extremity pitching mechanics and muscle activations among various pitch types in youth baseball pitchers . J Pediatr Orthop . 2017 . doi:10.1097/BPO.0000000000000980 28328567 25. Fleisig G , Chu Y , Weber

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Gabrielle G. Gilmer, Jessica K. Washington, Jeffrey R. Dugas, James R. Andrews and Gretchen D. Oliver

and explanations . J Biomech . 1993 ; 26 ( suppl 1 ): 125 – 135 . PubMed ID: 8505347 doi:10.1016/0021-9290(93)90084-R 10.1016/0021-9290(93)90084-R 8505347 3. Erickson BJ , Sgori T , Chalmers PN , et al . The impact of fatigue on baseball pitching mechanics in adolescent male pitchers

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Jin-Young Park, Junhyun Kim, Beom Ho Seo, Ho Dong Yu, Ju Hyun Sim, Jae Hyung Lee, Kyung Soo Oh and Seok Won Chung

. Lyman S , Fleisig GS , Andrews JR , Osinski ED . Effect of pitch type, pitch count, and pitching mechanics on risk of elbow and shoulder pain in youth baseball pitchers . Am J Sports Med . 2002 ; 30 ( 4 ): 463 – 468 . PubMed ID: 12130397 doi:10.1177/03635465020300040201 7. Lyman S