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Micheal J. Luera, Brittany Dowling, Tyler W.D. Muddle, and Nathaniel D.M. Jenkins

In baseball, pitch velocity (PV) is considered one of the most important components to a pitcher’s success. Consequently, the ability to pitch with high velocities is a trait heavily sought after by scouts and coaches at all levels of the sport. Alongside pitch command, or the ability to throw a

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LeRoy W. Alaways, Sean P. Mish, and Mont Hubbard

Pitched-baseball trajectories were measured in three dimensions during competitions at the 1996 Summer Olympic games using two high-speed video cameras and standard DLT techniques. A dynamic model of baseball flight including aerodynamic drag and Magnus lift forces was used to simulate trajectories. This simulation together with the measured trajectory position data constituted the components of an estimation scheme to determine 8 of the 9 release conditions (3 components each of velocity, position, and angular velocity) as well as the mean drag coefficient CD and terminal conditions at home plate. The average pitch loses 5% of its initial velocity during flight. The dependence of estimated drag coefficient on Reynolds number hints at the possibility of the drag crisis occurring in pitched baseballs. Such data may be used to quantify a pitcher’s performance (including fastball speed and amount of curve-ball break) and its improvement or degradation over time. It may also be used to understand the effects of release parameters on baseball trajectories.

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Michael E. O’Connell, Kyle E. Lindley, John O. Scheffey, Alex Caravan, Joseph A. Marsh, and Anthony C. Brady

, the mechanisms responsible for these pitch velocity and range of motion effects are poorly understood. One literature review theorized that the effect of training with underload and overload balls is due to a strengthening of the musculature involved in the throwing motion, 11 though strength

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Jason R. Themanson, Nicole J. Bing, Brad E. Sheese, and Matthew B. Pontifex

better understanding of batting at behavioral, cognitive, and neural levels, a great deal remains unexplored. One notable gap in the literature relates to the measurement of dynamic batting perceptual processes during ongoing pitch-by-pitch sequences and the variables that may influence neural indices

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Hardeep Singh, Mark Lee, Matthew J. Solomito, Christian Merrill, and Carl Nissen

, or soccer. 3 , 4 , 10 – 13 One explanation for the diverse presentation may be that primary lumbar extension exists in a variety of athletic movements but is not recognized, as the necessarily complex spine motion of sport masks lumbar extension. Baseball pitching is an extremely intricate motion

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Yungchien Chu, Glenn S. Fleisig, Kathy J. Simpson, and James R. Andrews

The purpose of the current study was to identify the biomechanical features of elite female baseball pitching. Kinematics and kinetics of eleven elite female baseball pitchers were reported and compared with eleven elite male pitchers. Results suggested that females share many similarities with males in pitching kinematics, with a few significant differences. Specifically, at the instant of stride foot contact, a female pitcher had a shorter and more open stride and less separation between pelvis orientation and upper torso orientation. From foot contact to ball release, a female pitcher produced lower peak angular velocity for throwing elbow extension and stride knee extension. Ball velocity was lower for the female. Foot contact to ball release took more time for a female pitcher. Maximal proximal forces at the shoulder and elbow joints were less for a female pitcher.

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Brett S. Pexa, Eric D. Ryan, Elizabeth E. Hibberd, Elizabeth Teel, Terri Jo Rucinski, and Joseph B. Myers

Baseball pitching is a dynamic movement that results in some of the highest kinematic and kinetic values in sport. Pitchers generate glenohumeral internal rotation angular velocities of over 7000° per second and internal rotational torques of 94 to 96 Nm. 1 At ball release, the shoulder moves from

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Jason R. Themanson, Alivia Hay, Lucas Sieving, and Brad E. Sheese

In an effort to gain a competitive edge in the game of baseball, some teams, analysts, and researchers have begun to examine hitters’ neural activity. These investigations have focused on assessing neural activity associated with classifying different pitch types ( Muraskin et al., 2013 , 2015

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Alanna Weisberg, Hyun Suk Lee, Tak Fung, and Larry Katz

International Society of Biomechanics in Sports. https://doi.org/10.13140/2.1.1896.7682 Aguinaldo , A.L. , & Escamilla , R.F. ( 2018 ). Relationship of segmental energy flow and elbow valgus loading during baseball pitching . Proceedings of the 36th Conference of the International Society of Biomechanics

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Rob Gray, Anders Orn, and Tim Woodman

shown a “heat map” representing a particular hitter’s batting average for pitch locations throughout the strike zone. While it has been shown that athletes can use this type of information to improve performance (e.g., Alain & Proteau, 1980 ; Gray, 2015a , 2015b ), it has the potential to change how