; and the presence of any condition that affects hormone metabolism. The University of Otago Human Ethics Committee approved this study; all participants provided written informed consent prior to participation. Study Design This was a prospective parallel group, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled
Kirsty A. Fairbairn, Ingrid J.M. Ceelen, C. Murray Skeaff, Claire M. Cameron and Tracy L. Perry
Guilherme S. Nunes, Débora Faria Wolf, Daniel Augusto dos Santos, Marcos de Noronha and Fábio Viadanna Serrão
. Methods Design This was a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in which the participants were allocated either to the experimental groups, in which they received an MWM technique on the hip, or the sham groups, in which they received a sham hip mobilization technique. Thus, 4 groups were formed
Aline C. Tritto, Salomão Bueno, Rosa M.P. Rodrigues, Bruno Gualano, Hamilton Roschel and Guilherme G. Artioli
resistance training, attenuation of muscle damage, and improvements in recovery and training loads in trained individuals. Methods Study Design This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Before (PRE) and after (POST) a 12-week intervention period, participants were assessed for body
Ozgur Surenkok, Aydan Aytar and Gul Baltaci
The aim of this study was to evaluate the initial effects of scapular mobilization (SM) on shoulder range of motion (ROM), scapular upward rotation, pain, and function.
Pretest–posttest for 3 groups (SM, sham, and control).
A double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the initial effect of the SM at a sports physiotherapy clinic.
39 subjects (22 women, 17 men; mean age 54.30 ± 14.16 y, age range 20-77 y).
A visual analog scale, ROM, scapular upward rotation, and function were assessed before and just after SM. SM (n = 13) consisted of the application of superoinferior gliding, rotations, and distraction to the scapula. The sham (n = 13) condition replicated the treatment condition except for the hand positioning. The control group (n = 13) did not undergo any physiotherapy and rehabilitation program.
Main Outcome Measures:
Pain severity was assessed with a visual analog scale. Scapular upward rotation was measured with a baseline digital inclinometer. Constant Shoulder Score (CSS) was used to measure shoulder function.
After SM, we found significant improvements for shoulder ROM, scapular upward rotation, and CSS between pretreatment and posttreatment compared with the sham and control groups. In the sham group, shoulder-ROM values increased or decreased for the shoulder and scapular upward rotation was not changed. Pain, ROM, and physical function of the shoulder were not significantly different in the sham group than in controls (P > .05).
SM may be a useful manual therapy technique to apply to participants with a painful limitation of the shoulder. SM increases ROM and decreases pain intensity.
Robyn F. Madden, Kelly A. Erdman, Jane Shearer, Lawrence L. Spriet, Reed Ferber, Ash T. Kolstad, Jessica L. Bigg, Alexander S.D. Gamble and Lauren C. Benson
caffeine ingestion were eligible to participate. 15 , 16 Design A double-blind, placebo-controlled, and randomized crossover experimental design was used for the SP trials, with 2 SP trials performed a week apart. Approximately 3.5 months later, 2 scrimmage (SC) trials were performed 24 hours apart in a
Aydan Aytar, Gul Baltaci, Tim Uhl, Handan Tuzun, Pinar Oztop and Metin Karatas
To determine the effects of scapular mobilization on function, pain, range of motion, and satisfaction in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome (SAIS).
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
University hospital clinics in Turkey.
66 participants (mean ± SD age 52.06 ± 3.71 y) with SAIS.
Participants were randomized into 3 groups: scapular mobilization, sham scapular mobilization, and supervised exercise. Before the interventions transcutaneous electrical stimulation and hot pack were applied to all groups. Total intervention duration for all groups was 3 wk with a total of 9 treatment sessions.
Main Outcome Measures:
Shoulder function and pain intensity were primary outcome measures; range of motion and participant satisfaction were secondary outcome measures. Shoulder function was assessed with the short form of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire (DASH). A visual analog scale was used to evaluate pain severity. Active range of motion was measured with a universal goniometer. A 7-point Likert scale was used to evaluate satisfaction. Outcome measurements were performed at baseline, before visits 5 and 10, 4 wk after visit 9, and 8 wk after visit 9.
There was no group difference for DASH score (P = .75), pain at rest (P = .41), pain with activity (P = .45), pain at night (P = .74), and shoulder flexion (P = .65), external rotation (P = .63), and internal rotation (P = .19). There was a significant increase in shoulder motion and function and a significant decrease in pain across time when all groups were combined (P < .001). The level of satisfaction was not significantly different for any of the questions about participant satisfaction between all groups (P > .05).
There was not a significant advantage of scapular mobilization for shoulder function, pain, range of motion, and satisfaction compared with sham or supervised-exercise groups in patients with SAIS.
Zeynep Hazar Kanik, Seyit Citaker, Canan Yilmaz Demirtas, Neslihan Celik Bukan, Bulent Celik and Gurkan Gunaydin
effects of KT on DOMS over a 72-hour period after an intense exercise protocol. Methods Experimental Design This study was designed as a single blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Independent variables were the 2 conditions: KT and placebo KT. Dependent variables consisted of muscle soreness
Alex S. Ribeiro, Fábio Luiz C. Pina, Soraya R. Dodero, Danilo R. P. Silva, Brad J. Schoenfeld, Paulo Sugihara Júnior, Rodrigo R. Fernandes, Décio S. Barbosa, Edilson S. Cyrino and Julio Tirapegui
The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of 8 weeks of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation associated with aerobic exercise on body fat and lipid profile on obese women. We performed a randomized, double-blinded and placebo-controlled trial with 28 obese women who received 3.2 g/day of CLA or 4 g/day of olive oil (placebo group) while performing an 8-week protocol of aerobic exercise. Dietary intake (food record), body fat (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and biochemical analysis (blood sample) were assessed before and after the intervention period. Independent of CLA supplementation, both groups improved (p < .05) oxygen uptake (CLA group, 13.2%; PLC group, 14.8%), trunk fat (CLA group, −1.0%; PLC group, −0.5%), leg fat (CLA group, −1.0%; PLC group, −1.6%), and total body fat (CLA group, −1.7%; PLC group, −1.3%) after the 8-week intervention. No main effect or Group × Time interaction was found for total cholesterol, triglycerides, and plasma lipoproteins (p > .05). We conclude that CLA supplementation associated with aerobic exercise has no effect on body fat reduction and lipid profile improvements over placebo in young adult obese women.
David C. Nieman, Courtney L. Goodman, Christopher R. Capps, Zack L. Shue and Robert Arnot
at Appalachian State University. Research Design This study used a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover design. Study participants ( N = 15) were randomized to coffee or placebo conditions for two weeks, participated in a 50-km cycling time trial, and then crossed over to the
Rachel Borne, Christophe Hausswirth and François Bieuzen
To investigate the effect of different limb blood-flow levels on cycling-performance recovery, blood lactate concentration, and heart rate.
Thirty-three high-intensity intermittent-trained athletes completed two 30-s Wingate anaerobic test sessions, 3 × 30-s (WAnT 1–3) and 1 × 30-s (WAnT 4), on a cycling ergometer. WAnT 1–3 and WAnT 4 were separated by a randomly assigned 24-min recovery intervention selected from among blood-flow restriction, passive rest, placebo stimulation, or neuromuscular electrical-stimulation-induced blood flow. Calf arterial inflow was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography at regular intervals throughout the recovery period. Performance was measured in terms of peak and mean power output during WAnT 1 and WAnT 4.
After the recovery interventions, a large (r = .68 [90% CL .42; .83]) and very large (r = .72 (90% CL .49; .86]) positive correlation were observed between the change in calf arterial inflow and the change in mean and peak power output, respectively. Calf arterial inflow was significantly higher during the neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation recovery intervention than with the blood-flow-restriction, passive-rest, and placebo-stimulation interventions (P < .001). This corresponds to the only intervention that allowed performance recovery (P > .05). No recovery effect was linked to heart rate or blood lactate concentration levels.
For the first time, these data support the existence of a positive correlation between an increase in blood flow and performance recovery between bouts of high-intensity exercise. As a practical consideration, this effect can be obtained by using neuromuscular electrical stimulation-induced blood flow since this passive, simple strategy could be easily applied during short-term recovery.