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Christian P. Cheung, Joshua T. Slysz, and Jamie F. Burr

. 13 This has been supported by a number of randomized control studies; 14 – 16 however, other evidence suggests that observed benefits are primarily a placebo effect 17 , 18 directly relating to the challenges of masking the sham control. The most common control condition mimics an IPC setup using

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Philip Hurst, Lieke Schipof-Godart, Florentina Hettinga, Bart Roelands, and Chris Beedie

The placebo effect is a desirable outcome resulting from a person’s belief and/or learned response to a treatment or situation. 1 Although there is considerable evidence for the effect placebos can have on sport performance, 2 empirical evidence in sport and exercise science has remained largely

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Philip Hurst, Samantha Saunders, and Damian Coleman

recreationally active participants ( N  = 7) and reported improvements of 16% compared with placebo. Similarly, Vanhatalo et al. ( 2010 ) reported that both acute (1 day) and chronic (15 days) 0.5-L dietary nitrate supplementation improved steady-state V ˙ O 2 during moderate-intensity exercise by ∼4% in

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Stephen A. Mears, Kathryn Dickinson, Kurt Bergin-Taylor, Reagan Dee, Jack Kay, and Lewis J. James

training stimulus. 11 , 12 From a physiological standpoint, despite small decreases in liver glycogen stores overnight, 13 fasted exercise should not impair short-duration performance, and therefore any influences on performance or self-selected intensity may be a result of a placebo effect. The placebo

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Michael J. Davies, Bradley Clark, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Marijke Welvaert, Christopher J. Gore, and Kevin G. Thompson

(placebo effect). Conversely, a negative experience in HYPER-DEC in other trial orders may have induced a nocebo effect that manifested in subsequent performances. 30 However, this is unlikely given no participant indicated awareness of deception nor could they correctly identify the administered gas

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Jozo Grgic, Sandro Venier, and Pavle Mikulic

The acute ergogenic effects of caffeine supplementation on exercise performance are well established. 1 – 3 Traditionally, the effects of caffeine on exercise performance are explored by testing the subjects after they ingest caffeine on one occasion and placebo on another occasion. In such a

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Cesar L. Teixeira, Paulo V. Mezzaroba, and Fabiana A. Machado

exhaustion. The distance covered after PBM application was greater (1.96 [0.30] km) than placebo (PLA; 1.84 [0.40] km). Time until exhaustion was also longer after PBM application (780.2 [91.0] s) than placebo (742.1 [94.0] s). Also, Lanferdini et al 1 conducted a study with 20 male competitive cyclists who

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Zeynep Hazar Kanik, Seyit Citaker, Canan Yilmaz Demirtas, Neslihan Celik Bukan, Bulent Celik, and Gurkan Gunaydin

effects of KT on DOMS over a 72-hour period after an intense exercise protocol. Methods Experimental Design This study was designed as a single blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Independent variables were the 2 conditions: KT and placebo KT. Dependent variables consisted of muscle soreness

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Cori Sinnott, Hayley M. White, Jennifer W. Cuchna, and Bonnie L. Van Lunen

Clinical Scenario:

Achilles tendinopathy is a painful condition commonly affecting the general and athletic population. It presents with localized pain, stiffness, and swelling in the midportion of the Achilles tendon. The physical stress placed on the tendon results in microtrauma, which leads to subsequent inflammation and degeneration. While it is not surprising that this condition affects the physically active, nearly one-third of Achilles tendinopathy cases occur in sedentary individuals. Etiology for this condition stems from a change in loading patterns and/or overuse of the tendon, resulting in microscopic tearing and degenerative changes. There are numerous causes contributing to the maladaptive response in these patients, such as mechanical, age-related, genetic, and vascular factors. The treatment for these patients is typically load management and eccentric strengthening of the gastrocnemius–soleus complex. Unfortunately, conservative treatment can lead to surgical intervention in up to 45% of cases. A relatively new phenomenon in the treatment of this condition is the use of autologous blood injections (ABI) and platelet-rich plasma injections (PRPI). This need for a less invasive treatment fostered more investigation into ABI and PRPI to treat these nonresponsive patients. However, the evidence concerning the effectiveness of these treatments in patients with Achilles tendinopathy has not been synthesized.

Focused Clinical Question:

In patients with Achilles tendinopathy, how do variations of ABI and PRPI compared with a placebo and/or eccentric training affect pain and function?

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Sally P. Waterworth, Connor C. Spencer, Aaron L. Porter, and James P. Morton

 al., 2019 ). Nonetheless, we acknowledged that lack of blinding between conditions (subjects were aware of CHO availability given that whole foods were consumed) may have influenced subjects’ perception of their ability to complete high-intensity workloads. Indeed, placebo effects of CHO availability have