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Marcelo Peduzzi de Castro, Daniel Cury Ribeiro, Felipe de Camargo Forte, Joelly Mahnic de Toledo, Roberto Costa Krug and Jefferson Fagundes Loss

The aim of this study was to compare shoulder muscle force and moment production during external rotation performed in the transverse and sagittal planes. An optimization model was used for estimating shoulder muscle force production of infraspinatus, teres minor, supraspinatus, anterior deltoid, middle deltoid and posterior deltoid muscles. The model uses as input data the external rotation moment, muscle moment arm magnitude, muscle physiologic cross-sectional area and muscle specific tension. The external rotation moment data were gathered from eight subjects in transverse and six subjects in sagittal plane using an isokinetic dynamometer. In the sagittal plane, all studied muscles presented larger estimated force in comparison with the transverse plane. The infraspinatus, teres minor, supraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles presented larger moment in sagittal when compared with transverse plane. When prescribing shoulder rehabilitation exercises, therapists should bear in mind the described changes in muscle force production.

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Janice K. Loudon and Marcie Swift

Clinical Question:

Is there evidence to suggest that runners with a history of ITBS demonstrate altered lower extremity kinematics compared with runners without a history of ITBS?

Clinical Bottom Line:

There is moderate evidence suggesting that hip kinematics differ between runners with a history of ITBS compared with healthy runners. Results are contradictory related to the plane of movement and direction of the kinematic change. In addition, assessing hip kinematics following an exhaustive run may be beneficial to detect change.

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Larry W. Judge

The core is at the center of most sports movements. What the core musculature is, how it is evaluated, how it is trained, and how it is applied to functional performance can sometimes be confusing to coaches. The benefits of a sound, research-based core training program is essential to all sport; therefore it must be included in coach’s education. The core musculature is separated into two systems: local (stabilization) and global (movement). Exercises can be separated into three categories: core-stability, core-strength, and functional exercises. A multifaceted approach that addresses the three planes of movement combining medicine-ball work, body-weight circuits, controlled movements, abdominal exercises, dumbbell complexes, and Olympic lifts can provide physiological and biomechanical advantages that enhance preparation for most every sport.

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Franklin Camargo-Junior, Marko Ackermann, Jefferson F. Loss and Isabel C.N. Sacco

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of errors in the location of the center of pressure (5 and 10 mm) on lower limb joint moment uncertainties at different gait velocities (1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 m/s). Our hypotheses were that the absolute joint moment uncertainties would be gradually reduced from distal to proximal joints and from higher to lower velocities. Joint moments of five healthy young adults were calculated by inverse dynamics using the bottom-up approach, depending on which estimate the uncertainty propagated. Results indicated that there is a linear relationship between errors in center of pressure and joint moment uncertainties. The absolute moment peak uncertainties expressed on the anatomic reference frames decreased from distal to proximal joints, confirming our first hypothesis, except for the abduction moments. There was an increase in moment uncertainty (up to 0.04 N m/kg for the 10 mm error in the center of pressure) from the lower to higher gait velocity, confirming our second hypothesis, although, once again, not for hip or knee abduction. Finally, depending on the plane of movement and the joint, relative uncertainties experienced variation (between 5 and 31%), and the knee joint moments were the most affected.

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Ted Polglaze, Brian Dawson, Daniel J. Hiscock and Peter Peeling


To determine the relationship between distance covered and player load (PL: sum of accelerations in all 3 planes of movement) in hockey training and competition.


Elite male hockey players (N = 24) wore player-tracking devices in 7 international matches and 7 training sessions. Players were arranged in 4 positional groups (strikers, attacking midfielders, defensive midfielders, defenders) in competition but had generic roles in training. Relationships between distance and PL were assessed in both absolute (m, AU) and relative (m/min, AU/min) terms and were compared between matches and training and between positions within matches, using the Fisher Z test.


In competition, the absolute distance–PL relationship was very large overall (r = .868), with no differences between positions. The relative distance–PL relationship was moderate overall (r = .486) and weaker in strikers than in defensive midfielders (Z = 1.785, P = .037) and defenders (Z = 1.690, P = .045). In training, the absolute distance–PL relationship was very large (r = .742), and large (r = .633) in relative terms. The relationship was stronger in competition than training for absolute values (Z = 2.824, P = .005) but not different for relative values.


The strong relationship between these variables suggests that PL in hockey is mostly accumulated through running and other locomotor actions, such that PL is not effective in quantifying other activities (evasion, low stance) that contribute to physiological demands, particularly in training.

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Nathaly Gaudreault, Alex Fuentes, Neila Mezghani, Virginie O. Gauthier and Katia Turcot


Decreased flexibility in muscles and joints of lower extremities is commonly observed in runners. Understanding the effect of decreased flexibility on knee walking kinematics in runners is important because, over time, altered gait patterns can make runners vulnerable to overuse injuries or degenerative pathologies.


To compare hamstring and iliotibial-band (ITB) flexibility and knee kinematics in runners and nonrunners.


A descriptive, comparative laboratory study.


Hamstring and ITB flexibility were measured with the active knee-extension test and the modified Ober test, respectively, in both groups of participants. Three-dimensional (3D) walking kinematic data were then recorded at the knee using a motiontracking system.


18 runners and 16 nonrunners.

Main Outcome Measures:

Knee-extension angle (hamstring flexibility) and hip-adduction angle (ITB flexibility). Knee kinematic parameters of interest included knee angle at initial contact, peak knee angles, and knee-angle range in all planes of movement.


The runners had a significantly less flexible ITB than the nonrunners (hip adduction [−] and adduction [+] angles, 3.1° ± 5.6° vs −6.4° ± 4.5°; P < .001). The runners demonstrated a greater mean tibial external-rotation angle at initial contact (7.3° ± 5.8° vs 2.0° ± 4.0°; P = .01) and a smaller mean peak tibial internal-rotation angle (−1.6° ± 3.0° vs −4.2° ± 3.2°; P = .04) than the nonrunners.


This study provides new insight into the relationship between muscle flexibility and 3D knee kinematics in runners. This supports the premise that there is an association between muscle flexibility and transverse-plane knee kinematics in this population.

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Connor Burk, Jesse Perry, Sam Lis, Steve Dischiavi and Chris Bleakley

ROM across 3 planes of movement and reported between-group differences ranging from 3.5% (rotation) to 9% (lateral flexion) in favor of the remote intervention. Three studies examined the effects of remote myofascial release versus either a sham treatment 13 , 18 or inactive sitting. 19 Myofascial

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Rasool Bagheri, Ismail Ebrahimi Takamjani, Mohammad R. Pourahmadi, Elham Jannati, Sayyed H. Fazeli, Rozita Hedayati and Mahmood Akbari

Cardan sequence) were computed and expressed relatively to the pelvis segment in 3 planes of movement as well defined by Hidalgo et al 40 and Leardini et al. 42 , 43 Trunk segment was modeled by placing 3 markers on bilateral acromioclavicular joints and T12 spinous process, whereas the pelvic segment

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Lindsey Tulipani, Mark G. Boocock, Karen V. Lomond, Mahmoud El-Gohary, Duncan A. Reid and Sharon M. Henry

considerations for future work to validate inertial sensors for all planes of movement and ensure there are clinic-friendly interfaces. We chose to focus the initial validation on movements occurring in the major planes of movement. However, complex tasks often involve off-axis movements that might be difficult

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Anat V. Lubetzky, Bryan D. Hujsak, Gene Fu and Ken Perlin

planes of movement: X , mediolateral translation; pitch, up and down rotation; Y , up and down translation; yaw, side-to-side rotation; Z , anterior–posterior translation; roll, side flexion. Directional path ( Quatman-Yates et al., 2013 ) Total path length in millimeters (the length of the position