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Sonia Lippke, Jochen P. Ziegelmann and Ralf Schwarzer

Patients in rehabilitation settings often face difficulties in complying with physical exercise regimens. To examine social-cognitive determinants in the adoption and maintenance of exercise, a study with four points in time was launched, scrutinizing beliefs and behaviors of 509 orthopedic patients. Although exercise levels increased over time, a sizable number of patients remained inactive. Perceived self-efficacy and outcome expectancies predicted levels of intention and action plans. The latter two in turn were proximal predictors of subsequent exercise. In light of the findings, it is argued that planning helps to bridge the intention-behavior gap. Planning is an alterable variable and is therefore suitable for effective intervention.

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Feng-Tzu Chen, Su-Ru Chen, I-Hua Chu, Jen-Hao Liu and Yu-Kai Chang

attention development ( Pesce et al., 2013 ). Similarly, children with overweight status have also been found to exhibit improved inhibition ( Crova et al., 2014 ), as well as improved planning and academic achievement ( Davis et al., 2007 , 2011 ), after exercise interventions. These findings indicate

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Navin Kaushal, Ryan E. Rhodes, John T. Meldrum and John C. Spence

-based behavior change techniques ( Conner & Norman, 2015 ). Reviews of PA interventions reveal that behavioral strategies (e.g., goal setting, self-monitoring, coping planning) appear to be more effective than cognitive interventions (e.g., self-talk, education; Conn, Hafdahl, & Mehr, 2011 ; Rhodes & Pfaeffli

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Yu-Kai Chang, Chia-Liang Tsai, Tsung-Min Hung, Edmund Cheung So, Feng-Tzu Chen and Jennifer L. Etnier

The purpose of this study is to extend the literature by examining the effects of an acute bout of moderate to vigorous intensity aerobic exercise on the executive functions of planning and problem solving assessed using a Tower of London Task (TOL Task). Forty-two participants were randomly assigned into either exercise or control group, and performed the TOL Task, before and immediately following exercise or a control treatment. The exercise group performed 30 min of exercise on a stationary cycle at moderate to vigorous intensity while the control group read for the same length of time. Results indicated that the exercise group achieved improvements in TOL Task scores reflecting the quality of planning and problem solving, but not in those reflecting rule adherence and performance speed. These findings indicate that an acute bout of aerobic exercise has facilitative effects on the executive functions of planning and problem solving.

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T. Nicole Kirk and Justin A. Haegele

activity engagement, which is one of the goals of the professional discipline. Theory of Planned Behavior Along with several other theories, Crocker ( 1993 ) speculated that the theory of planned behavior would be particularly well-suited for use in research within the field of adapted physical activity

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Grace Goc-Karp and Dorothy B. Zakrajsek

This study determined and compared the planning models taught in preservice physical education (theoretical) with those practiced in junior high school physical education (reality). Empirical and ethnographic data were collected through a survey of college professors (n = 59), close-ended (n = 36) and open-ended surveys of teachers (n = 28), and a nonparticipant observation study (n = 4). The results indicated that the theoretical model focused on planning for student learning whereas the reality model focused on planning for teaching. The personal philosophy of the teachers, coaching commitments, the teachers’ routines of planning and teaching, and the students’ reactions were major influences on how teachers planned and why they planned. Reasons for lack of transfer of the planning model from theory into practice are discussed and suggestions for further investigation are made.

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Amy Eyler, Jamie Chriqui, Jay Maddock, Angie Cradock, Kelly R. Evenson, Jeanette Gustat, Steven Hooker, Rodney Lyn, Michelle Segar, Nancy O’Hara Tompkins and Susan G. Zieff

Background:

In the United States, health promotion efforts often begin with state-level strategic plans. Many states have obesity, nutrition, or other topic-related plans that include physical activity (PA). The purpose of this study was to assess PA content in these state plans and make recommendations for future plan development.

Methods:

Publically available plans were collected in 2010. A content analysis tool was developed based on the United States National PA Plan and included contextual information and plan content. All plans were double coded for reliability and analyzed using SPSS.

Results:

Forty-three states had a statewide plan adopted between 2002 and 2010, none of which focused solely on PA. Over 80% of PA-specific strategies included policy or environmental changes. Most plans also included traditional strategies to increase PA (eg, physical education, worksite). Few plans included a specific focus on land use/community design, parks/recreation, or transportation. Less than one-half of plans included transportation or land use/community design partners in plan development.

Conclusions:

Though the majority of states had a PA-oriented plan, comprehensiveness varied by state. Most plans lacked overarching objectives on the built environment, transportation, and land use/community design. Opportunities exist for plan revision and alignment with the National PA Plan sectors and strategies.

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Breanna E. Studenka and Kodey Myers

individuals with ASD lack the ability to take on the perspective of the other person, and therefore, do not understand how the person would like to be handed the hammer. In this interpretation, individuals with ASD may have normal motor planning, but cannot understand the intentions of another person, and

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Vassilios Ziakas and Sylvia Trendafilova

Ian turned on his laptop to start working on his first report for his new job. He was very pleased with the opportunity that had presented itself. It involved planning, and potentially organizing and implementing an event for motorcycles. Events and motorcycles were definitely two of his favorite

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Swati M. Surkar, Rashelle M. Hoffman, Brenda Davies, Regina Harbourne and Max J. Kurz

are not solely an action execution disorder, but might also be due to deficits in the ability to plan goal-directed actions ( Kurz, Becker, Heinrichs-Graham, & Wilson, 2014 ; Kurz, Proskovec, Gehringer, Heinrichs-Graham, & Wilson, 2017 ; Steenbergen & Gordon, 2006 ; Surkar, et al., 2018a , 2018b