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Sonia Lippke, Jochen P. Ziegelmann, and Ralf Schwarzer

Patients in rehabilitation settings often face difficulties in complying with physical exercise regimens. To examine social-cognitive determinants in the adoption and maintenance of exercise, a study with four points in time was launched, scrutinizing beliefs and behaviors of 509 orthopedic patients. Although exercise levels increased over time, a sizable number of patients remained inactive. Perceived self-efficacy and outcome expectancies predicted levels of intention and action plans. The latter two in turn were proximal predictors of subsequent exercise. In light of the findings, it is argued that planning helps to bridge the intention-behavior gap. Planning is an alterable variable and is therefore suitable for effective intervention.

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Kristen A. Morrison and Katie E. Misener

, competitive advantage, and position (e.g.,  Pettigrew, 1985 , 2012 ; Porter, 1980 ). In order to develop effective organizational strategies, nonprofit leaders may engage in a deliberative strategic planning process in order to “produc[e] fundamental decisions and actions that shape and guide what an

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Feng-Tzu Chen, Su-Ru Chen, I-Hua Chu, Jen-Hao Liu, and Yu-Kai Chang

attention development ( Pesce et al., 2013 ). Similarly, children with overweight status have also been found to exhibit improved inhibition ( Crova et al., 2014 ), as well as improved planning and academic achievement ( Davis et al., 2007 , 2011 ), after exercise interventions. These findings indicate

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Justin B. Hollander, Ann Sussman, Peter Lowitt, Neil Angus, and Minyu Situ

Traditional transportation planning tends to focus on the mobility of vehicles rather than on opportunities to encourage the use of sustainable transport modes, like walking. Today, transportation planning focuses on the newest ways to balance the sustainable relationship between human beings and

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Navin Kaushal, Ryan E. Rhodes, John T. Meldrum, and John C. Spence

-based behavior change techniques ( Conner & Norman, 2015 ). Reviews of PA interventions reveal that behavioral strategies (e.g., goal setting, self-monitoring, coping planning) appear to be more effective than cognitive interventions (e.g., self-talk, education; Conn, Hafdahl, & Mehr, 2011 ; Rhodes & Pfaeffli

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Yu-Kai Chang, Chia-Liang Tsai, Tsung-Min Hung, Edmund Cheung So, Feng-Tzu Chen, and Jennifer L. Etnier

The purpose of this study is to extend the literature by examining the effects of an acute bout of moderate to vigorous intensity aerobic exercise on the executive functions of planning and problem solving assessed using a Tower of London Task (TOL Task). Forty-two participants were randomly assigned into either exercise or control group, and performed the TOL Task, before and immediately following exercise or a control treatment. The exercise group performed 30 min of exercise on a stationary cycle at moderate to vigorous intensity while the control group read for the same length of time. Results indicated that the exercise group achieved improvements in TOL Task scores reflecting the quality of planning and problem solving, but not in those reflecting rule adherence and performance speed. These findings indicate that an acute bout of aerobic exercise has facilitative effects on the executive functions of planning and problem solving.

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Xiuye Xie, Phillip Ward, Won Seok Chey, Leslie Dillon, Scott Trainer, and Kyuil Cho

 al., 2014 ; Xie et al., 2021 ). Adaptive competence is seen as a highly generalizable teaching skill that teachers need for today’s schools. Adaptive competence has been defined as a teacher’s “ability to adjust their planning and teaching to the individual learning processes of students” ( Brühwiler

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T. Nicole Kirk and Justin A. Haegele

activity engagement, which is one of the goals of the professional discipline. Theory of Planned Behavior Along with several other theories, Crocker ( 1993 ) speculated that the theory of planned behavior would be particularly well-suited for use in research within the field of adapted physical activity

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Sophie C. Andrews, Dinaz Parekh, Brooke Brady, Kim Delbaere, Md Hamidul Huque, Simon Killcross, and Kaarin J. Anstey

, 2010 ). Although planned exercise (i.e., exercise specifically for health or recreation) is traditionally recognized as PA, there is increasing recognition of the value of incidental PA not just as a way to increase overall movement during the day but also as a source of vigorous- or moderate

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Amy Eyler, Jamie Chriqui, Jay Maddock, Angie Cradock, Kelly R. Evenson, Jeanette Gustat, Steven Hooker, Rodney Lyn, Michelle Segar, Nancy O’Hara Tompkins, and Susan G. Zieff


In the United States, health promotion efforts often begin with state-level strategic plans. Many states have obesity, nutrition, or other topic-related plans that include physical activity (PA). The purpose of this study was to assess PA content in these state plans and make recommendations for future plan development.


Publically available plans were collected in 2010. A content analysis tool was developed based on the United States National PA Plan and included contextual information and plan content. All plans were double coded for reliability and analyzed using SPSS.


Forty-three states had a statewide plan adopted between 2002 and 2010, none of which focused solely on PA. Over 80% of PA-specific strategies included policy or environmental changes. Most plans also included traditional strategies to increase PA (eg, physical education, worksite). Few plans included a specific focus on land use/community design, parks/recreation, or transportation. Less than one-half of plans included transportation or land use/community design partners in plan development.


Though the majority of states had a PA-oriented plan, comprehensiveness varied by state. Most plans lacked overarching objectives on the built environment, transportation, and land use/community design. Opportunities exist for plan revision and alignment with the National PA Plan sectors and strategies.