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Silvia Gonçalves Ricci Neri, André Bonadias Gadelha, Ana Luiza Matias Correia, Juscélia Cristina Pereira, Ana Cristina de David and Ricardo M. Lima

. 7 In this direction, foot disorders may explain the association between obesity and falls in older people. Indeed, previous evidence has confirmed that obesity negatively affects foot function, in which obese adults have been found to generate significantly higher plantar pressure during walking

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Anna M. Ifarraguerri, Danielle M. Torp, Abbey C. Thomas and Luke Donovan

increased inversion, 7 , 9 increased lateral peak plantar pressure, 12 , 13 and a more laterally-deviated center of pressure (COP) during walking when compared to individuals with no LAS history. 12 , 13 These modified gait patterns are thought to contribute to the repetitive ankle sprains and lasting

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Banu Unver, Emin Ulas Erdem and Eda Akbas

patellofemoral pain syndrome are also associated with pes planus. 4 – 7 Excessive pronation in pes planus causes ground reaction forces to deviate medially during stance phase of the gait. 8 Thus, altered dynamic function and related foot deformities result in abnormal plantar pressure pattern in pes planus. 9

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Mikko Virmavirta and Paavo V. Komi

The Paromed Datalogger® with two insole pressure transducers (16 sensors each, 200 Hz) was applied to study the feasibility of the system for measurement of plantar pressure distribution in ski jumping. The specific aim was to test the sensitivity of the Paromed system to the changes in plantar pressure distribution in ski jumping. Three international level ski jumpers served as subjects during the testing of the system. The Datalogger was fixed to the jumpers’ lower back under the jumping suit. A separate pulse was transmitted to the Datalogger and tape recorder in order to synchronize the logger information with photocell signals indicating the location of the jumper on the inrun. Test procedure showed that this system could be used in ski jumping with only minor disturbance to the jumper. The measured relative pressure increase during the inrun curve matched well the calculated relative centrifugal force (mv2 · r‒1), which thus serves a rough estimation of the system validity. Strong increase in pressure under the big toes compared to the heels (225% and 91%, respectively) with large interindividual differences characterized the take-off. These differences may reflect an unstable anteroposterior balance of a jumper while he tries to create a proper forward rotation for a good flight position.

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Christian Maiwald, Stefan Grau, Inga Krauss, Marlene Mauch, Detlef Axmann and Thomas Horstmann

The aim of this study was to provide detailed information on rationales, calculations, and results of common methods used to quantify reproducibility in plantar pressure variables. Recreational runners (N = 95) performed multiple barefoot running trials in a laboratory setup, and pressure variables were analyzed in nine distinct subareas of the foot. Reproducibility was assessed by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and the root mean square error (RMSE). Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.58 to 0.99, depending on the respective variable and type of ICC. Root mean square errors ranged between 2.3 and 3.1% for relative force–time integrals, between 0.07 and 0.23 for maximum force (Fmax), and between 107 and 278 kPa for maximum pressure (Pmax), depending on the subarea of the foot. Force–time integral variables demonstrated the best within-subject reproducibility. Rear-foot data suffered from slightly increased measurement error and reduced reproducibility compared with the forefoot.

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Sae Yong Lee and Jay Hertel

Context:

Altered foot dynamics due to malalignment of the foot may change plantar-pressure properties, resulting in various kinds of overuse injuries.

Objective:

To assess the effect of foot characteristics on plantar-pressure-related measures such as maximum pressure, maximum pressure–time, and pressure–time integral underneath the medial aspect of the foot during running.

Design:

Cross-sectional.

Setting:

Laboratory. Participants: 8 men and 17 women.

Main Outcome Measures:

Static non-weight-bearing rear-foot and forefoot alignment and navicular drop were measured. Plantar-pressure data were collected while subjects jogged at 2.6 m/s on a treadmill. Maximum pressure, time to maximum pressure, and pressure–time integral of the medial side of the foot were extracted for data analysis. Multiple-regression analysis was used to examine the effect of arch height and rear-foot and forefoot alignment on maximum pressure and pressure–time integral in the medial side of the foot.

Results:

In the medial rear-foot and midfoot regions, only rear-foot alignment had a significant effect on the variance of maximum pressure and pressure–time integral. There were no significant difference effects in the medial forefoot region.

Conclusion:

Rear-foot alignment was found to be a significant predictor of maximum plantar pressure and pressure–time integral in the medial rear-foot and midfoot regions. This indicates that control of rear-foot alignment may help decrease plantar pressure on the medial region of the foot, which may potentially prevent injuries associated with excessive rear-foot eversion.

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Lacey Nordsiden, Bonnie L. Van Lunen, Martha L. Walker, Nelson Cortes, Maria Pasquale and James A. Onate

Context:

Many styles of foot pads are commonly applied to reduce immediate pain and pressure under the foot.

Objective:

To examine the effect of 3 different foot pads on peak plantar pressure (PPP) and mean plantar pressure (MPP) under the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) during slow running.

Design:

A 4 (pad) × 4 (mask) repeated-measures design.

Setting:

University athletic training clinic and fitness facility.

Participants:

20 physically active participants, 12 men (19.7 ± 1.3 y, 181.5 ± 6.3 cm, 83.6 ± 12.3 kg) and 8 women (20.8 ± 1.5 y, 172.7 ± 11.2 cm, 69.9 ± 14.2 kg) with navicular drop greater than or equal to 10 mm, no history of surgery to the lower extremity, and no history of pain or injury to the first MTPJ in the past 6 months.

Interventions:

PPP and MPP were evaluated under 4 areas of the foot: the rear foot, lateral forefoot, medial forefoot, and first MTPJ. Four pad conditions (no pad, metatarsal dome, U-shaped pad, and donut-shaped pad) were evaluated during slow running. All measurements were taken on a standardized treadmill using the Pedar in-shoe pressure-measurement system.

Main Outcome Measures:

PPP and MPP in 4 designated foot masks during slow running.

Results:

The metatarsal dome produced significant decreases in MPP (163.07 ± 49.46) and PPP (228.73 ± 63.41) when compared with no pad (P < .001). The U-shaped pad significantly decreased MPP (168.68 ± 50.26) when compared with no pad (P < .001). The donut-shaped pad increased PPP compared with no pad (P < .001).

Conclusions:

The metatarsal dome was most effective in reducing both peak and mean plantar pressure. Other factors such as pad comfort, type of activity, and material availability must also be considered. Further research should be conducted on the applicability to other foot types and symptomatic subjects.

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M. Adoración Villarroya, José Antonio Casajús and José María Pérez

Objectives:

To compare temporal and pressure values between racewalking and normal walking (freely selected speed) and evaluate the impact of racewalking on normal walking.

Design and Participants:

Temporal and plantar-pressure values were recorded (xPression system) during normal walking and racewalking in 8 high-level racewalkers. The Wilcoxon test was used for comparisons.

Measurements:

Duration of walking and racewalking cycle phases (seconds and percentage of the cycle), peak and average pressures under the hind foot and metatarsal heads, and pressure distribution (%) among metatarsal heads.

Results and Conclusions:

Normal walking: temporal parameters similar to those described in normal gait; peak pressures higher than those described in nonracewalkers with displacement toward lateral forefoot. Racewalking: shorter cycles (important decrease of midstance phase); higher peak pressures than during normal walking in the hind foot and 4th and 5th metatarsal heads; average pressures similar to normal walking in hind foot and lower in forefoot; pressure displacement toward lateral forefoot greater than in normal walking.

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Brad Hodgson, Laurie Tis, Steven Cobb, Shawn McCarthy and Elizabeth Higbie

Context:

Because of research variability and the increasing use of orthotics to manage lower extremity problems, further research is warranted.

Objective:

To investigate the effect of rear-foot- and forefoot-posted (PAL) and mediolongitu-dinal arch-supported (SOLE) orthotics on plantar pressure (PP) during walking.

Design:

Repeated measures.

Setting:

Laboratory.

Participants:

17 subjects with forefoot varus.

Intervention:

Data were collected at 0 and 6 weeks for no-orthotic and orthotic conditions.

Measurements:

PPs were collected with the EMED Pedar measurement system.

Results:

Zero weeks: PAL increased PP in lateral forefoot (LFF), middle toes (MT), and lateral toes (LT) and decreased PP in lateral heel (LH), medial forefoot (MFF), and central forefoot (CFF). SOLE increased PP for midfoot (MF) and LT and decreased PP in medial heel (MH), LH, and CFF. 6 weeks: PAL increased PP in LFF, MT, and LT and decreased PP in LH, MFF, and CFF. SOLE increased PP in MF and decreased PP in MH, LH, and LFF.

Conclusion:

The SOLE orthotic appeared to be more effective in attaining the goals of custom-molded-orthotic intervention.

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Daniel A. Jacobs and Daniel P. Ferris

Instrumented insoles could benefit locomotion research on healthy and clinical populations by providing data in natural settings outside of the laboratory. We designed a low-cost, instrumented insole with 8 pneumatic bladders to measure localized plantar pressure information. We collected gait data during treadmill walking at 1.0 m/s and 1.5 m/s and for sit-to-stand and stand-tosit tasks for 10 subjects. We estimated a common representation of ground kinetics (3-component force vector, 2-component center of pressure position vector, and a single-component torque vector) from the insole data. We trained an intertask neural network for each component of the kinetic data. For the walking tasks at 1.0 m/s and 1.5 m/s, the normalized root mean square error was between 3.1% and 12.9% and for the sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit tasks, the normalized root mean square error was between 3.3% and 21.3% Our findings suggest that the proposed low-cost, instrumented insoles could provide useful data about movement kinetics during real-world activities.