that can be used to optimize performance and safety when exercising in the heat. 1 Higher sweat rate, plasma volume expansion, decreased heart rate, and lower internal body temperature are observed following heat acclimation, and these adaptations decrease the risk of heat illness and increase
Yasuki Sekiguchi, Erica M. Filep, Courteney L. Benjamin, Douglas J. Casa, and Lindsay J. DiStefano
Abderraouf Ben Abderrahman, Jacques Prioux, Karim Chamari, Omar Ben Ounis, Zouhair Tabka, and Hassane Zouhal
The effect of endurance interval training (IT) on hematocrit (Ht), hemoglobin (Hb), and estimated plasma-volume variation (PVV) in response to maximal exercise was studied in 15 male subjects (21.1 ± 1.1 y; control group n = 6, and training group, n = 9). The training group participated in interval training 3 times a week for 7 wk. A maximal graded test (GXT) was performed to determine maximal aerobic power (MAP) and maximal aerobic speed (MAS) both before and after the training program. To determine Ht, Hb concentration, and lactate concentrations, blood was collected at rest, at the end of GXT, and after 10 and 30 min of recovery. MAP and MAS increased significantly (P < .05) after training only in training group. Hematocrit determined at rest was significantly lower in the training group than in the control group after the training period (P < .05). IT induced a significant increase of estimated PVV at rest for training group (P < .05), whereas there were no changes for control group. Hence, significant relationships were observed after training between PVV determined at the end of the maximal test and MAS (r = .60, P < .05) and MAP (r = .76, P < .05) only for training group. In conclusion, 7 wk of IT led to a significant increase in plasma volume that possibly contributed to the observed increase of aerobic fitness (MAP and MAS).
Blake D. McLean, Kevin White, Christopher J. Gore, and Justin Kemp
players’ physiology and performance. Indeed, improvements in team sport athletes’ running performance have been shown following heat, 2 altitude, 1 and a combination of heat and hypoxic exposures. 3 High-intensity training leads to increases in plasma volume (PV) 4 that occur within 48 hours of the
Samuel T. Tebeck, Jonathan D. Buckley, Clint R. Bellenger, and Jamie Stanley
physiological adaptations associated with the heat-acclimated phenotype (ie,plasma volume [PV] expansion, earlier onset of sweat, increased sweat rate, increased skin blood flow, etc). In these studies, the HI ranged from 28 (30°C and 24% RH 17 ) to 61 (39.5°C and 60% RH 16 ), making it difficult to elucidate
Kevin J. Cole, Peter W. Grandjean, Richard J. Sobszak, and Joel B. Mitchell
This study examined the effects of serial feedings of different carbohydrate (CHO) solutions on plasma volume, gastric emptying (GE), and performance during prolonged cycling exercise. Solutions containing 6 g% glucose-sucrose (CHO-6GS), 83 g% high fructose com syrup (CHO-8HF), 6.3 g% high fructose corn syrup + 2 g% glucose polymer (CHO-8HP), and a water placebo (WP) were compared. Ten trained male cyclists performed four cycling trials consisting of 105 min at 70% VQ2max followed by a 15-min all-out, self-paced performance ride. Every 15 min the men consumed one of the four test solutions. Blood samples were taken before, during, and after exercise to determine blood glucose and plasma volume changes. There were no significant differences in performance, GE, or plasma volume changes between trials. Blood glucose was significantly elevated at the 105-min timepoint in all CHO trials when compared to WP. The CHO-8HF and CHO-8HP drinks resulted in a significantly higher delivery of CHO to the intestine. Higher rates of CHO oxidation during the steady-state ride were observed only with the CHO-6GS drink.
Kieran E. Fallon, Elizabeth Broad, Martin W. Thompson, and Patricia A. Reull
The fluid and food intakes of 7 male participants in a 100-km ultramarathon were recorded. The mean exercise time was 10 hr 29 min. Nutrient analysis revealed a mean inlrarace energy intake of 4.233 kJ. with 88.6% derived from carbohydrate. 6.7% from fat, and 4.7% from protein. Fluid intake varied widely. 3.3–1 1.1 L, with a mean of 5.7 L. The mean decrease in plasma volume at 100 km was 7.3%, accompanied by an estimated mean sweat rale of 0.86 L ⋅ hr−1. Blood glucose concentrations remained normal during the event, and free fatty acids and glycerol were elevated both during and at the conclusion of the event. No significant correlations were found between absolute amounts and rates of ingestion of carbohydrate and/or fluid and race performance.
Timothy P. Scheett, Michael J. Webster, and Kent D. Wagoner
On two occasions, 8 male subjects completed a dehydration protocol, immediately followed by a 180-min rehydration protocol, then a subsequent exercise bout. During each dehydration session, subjects lost 3.1 ± 0.4% body weight (BW) following discontinuous exercise in the heat (40 °C, 33 % rh). During the first 30 min of rehydration, subjects ingested either 1.0-g glycerol · kg body weight−1 + 30% of the total rehydration water volume (GLY), or 30% of the total rehydration water volume without glycerol (CON). The five remaining ingestions (every 30 min) were equal to 14% of the remaining fluid volume and were identical in nature. Fluid volume ingested equaled fluid volume lost during dehydration. Following the 180 min rehydration period, subjects cycled (~50% V̇O2peak) in the heat (40 °C, 33% rh) until volitional exhaustion. Three observations were made: (a) Following glycerol-induced rehydration, time to volitional exhaustion was greater during the subsequent exercise bout in the heat (CON: 38.0 ± 2.0, GLY 42.8 ± 1.0 min, p < .05); (b) glycerol-induced rehydration significantly increased plasma volume restoration within 60 min and at the end of the 180-min rehydration period; and (c) total urine volume was lower and percent rehydration was greater following GLY, but neither was significantly different.
Eva M.R. Kovacs, Regina M. Schmahl, Joan M.G. Senden, and Fred Brouns
The effect of a high (H) and a low (L) rate of post-exercise fluid consumption on plasma volume and fluid balance restoration was investigated. Eight well-trained cyclists were dehydrated at 3% of body weight (BW) by cycling at 28 °C. During the recovery period, they ingested a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution in a volume equivalent to 120% of BW loss. Randomly, they ingested 60%, 40%, and 20% in the 1 st, 2nd, and 3rd hours of the recovery period, respectively (H), or 24% · h−1 during 5 hours (L). BW loss was similar for both trials and resulted in a total drink intake of 2.6 ± 0.1 kg. Urine output in H exceeded significantly that of L in the 2nd and 3rd hours. This was reversed in the 5th and 6th hours. Plasma volume and fluid balance increased more rapidly in H compared to L. After 6 hours this difference disappeared. It is concluded that H results in a faster rate of plasma volume and fluid balance restoration compared to L, despite a temporary large urine output.
Calvin P. Philp, Martin Buchheit, Cecilia M. Kitic, Christopher T. Minson, and James W. Fell
To investigate whether a 5-d cycling training block in the heat (35°C) in Australian Rules footballers was superior to exercising at the same relative intensity in cool conditions (15°C) for improving intermittent-running performance in a cool environment (<18°C).
Using a parallel-group design, 12 semiprofessional football players performed 5 d of cycling exercise (70% heart-rate reserve [HRR] for 45 min [5 × 50-min sessions in total]) in a hot (HEAT, 35°C ± 1°C, 56% ± 9% RH) or cool environment (COOL, 15°C ± 3°C, 81% ± 10% RH). A 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test to assess intermittent running performance (VIFT) was conducted in a cool environment (17°C ± 2°C, 58 ± 5% RH) before and twice after (1 and 3 d) the intervention.
There was a likely small increase in VIFT in each group (HEAT, 0.5 ± 0.3 km/h, 1.5 ± 0.8 × smallest worthwhile change [SWC]; COOL, 0.4 ± 0.4 km/h, 1.6 ± 1.2 × SWC) 3 d postintervention, with no difference in change between the groups (0.5% ± 1.9%, 0.4 ± 1.4 × SWC). Cycle power output during the intervention was almost certainly lower in the HEAT group (HEAT 1.8 ± 0.2 W/kg vs COOL 2.5 ± 0.3 W/kg, –21.7 ± 3.2 × SWC, 100/0/0).
When cardiovascularexercise intensity is matched (ie, 70% HRR) between environmental conditions, there is no additional performance benefit from short-duration moderate-intensity heat exposure (5 × 50 min) for semiprofessional footballers exercising in cool conditions. However, the similar positive adaptations may occur in HEAT with 30% lower mechanical load, which may be of interest for load management during intense training or rehabilitation phases.
Richard D. Wemple, Tamara S. Morocco, and Gary W. Mack
This study investigated the hypothesis that addition of