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Annelies Knoppers, Marvin Zuidema and Barbara Bedker Meyer

The Webb Scale (1969) has been used in much of the research focusing on the professionalization of attitudes via sport. The results of such studies seemed to indicate that the extent to which winning was valued varied by age, gender, and type of sport involvement. However, these findings may in part have been a function of the noncontextual nature of the Webb Scale. In addition, the use of ranking methodology may have forced game orientation into an artificial bipolar continuum bounded by play orientation on one end and professional orientation at the other end. In the current study, the results of the administration of the Webb Scale and the Game Orientation Scale (Knoppers, Schuiteman, & Love, 1986) to 312 youngsters were compared across gender and degree of athletic experience. The Game Orientation Scale uses descriptions of two different sport scenarios and 5-point Likert scales to assess game orientation. The results revealed that game orientation was multidimensional, that the Webb Scale’s validity was questionable, and that professionalization was more a function of measurement and of the type of setting than of a generalized inherent attitude.

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Dale B. Read, Ben Jones, Sean Williams, Padraic J. Phibbs, Josh D. Darrall-Jones, Greg A.B. Roe, Jonathon J.S. Weakley, Andrew Rock and Kevin Till

The physical characteristics of match play (ie, running and collisions) in age-grade (eg, U18 [under-18]) rugby union players is a growing area of research. 1 – 3 Studies using global positioning systems (GPS) have published data from county representative, 4 school, 5 academy, 2 and

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Brendan Dwyer, Joshua M. Lupinek and Rebecca M. Achen

, Ridinger, & Moorman, 2004 ). Simon ( 1959 ) was one of the first to posit the substantial influence motivation plays within the consumer decision-making process. Motivation is thought of as the key catalyst within the study of consumer behavior ( Schmitt, 2015 ). Mowen and Minor ( 1998 ) defined the

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Lisa M. Barnett and Owen Makin

, removal of leap, and seven object control: addition of one hand forehand strike, replacement of underhand roll with underhand throw). Young children’s physical activity behavior is primarily play based, so it is conceivable that perception in play related activities (in addition to FMS) may also be

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Brendan Dwyer, Joris Drayer and Stephen L. Shapiro

purpose of the current study was to explore gambling-related differences, dispositionally, attitudinally, and behaviorally, between those fantasy participants who chose to play DFS and those who only play TFS. As a new service with enticing, yet potentially harmful outcomes, DFS participation is still

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Jessica L. Chandler, Keith Brazendale, Clemens Drenowatz, Justin B. Moore, Xuemei Sui, Robert G. Weaver and Michael W. Beets

—organized games (ie, adult led) and unstructured play (ie, free play). 5 , 6 Interventions have largely focused on incorporating adult-led games to increase children’s PA either by increasing the skills of adults to remove inactive elements from traditionally played games and/or by the adoption of PA curricula

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Phillip Post and Rebecca Palacios

information and behaviors by observing the behaviors of others and their related consequences. Aggie Play, a biweekly, gender-relevant after-school physical activity program, was modeled after BAWSI Girls and used SCT as a guiding theoretical framework ( Bandura, 2004 ; Kelder, Hoelscher, & Perry, 2015

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John Strickland and Grant Bevill

-head injuries) are diagnosed annually in emergency room visits as a result of the sport. 4 While limited data exist on specific injury mechanisms, 2 recent studies suggest that the primary source of head/face injuries is players being struck by the ball during defensive field play. 3 , 4 Despite this trend, a

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Matthew Pearce, David H. Saunders, Peter Allison and Anthony P. Turner

indoor or outdoor play tend to be child directed, intermittent, and informal. 2 Young people can also accumulate physical activity during school time. Developing our awareness of how these varied contexts contribute toward daily MVPA targets is essential because each is likely to have different

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Sarah K. Fields and R. Dawn Comstock

Rugby, a fast-paced, aggressive contact sport, has a high incidence of injury. This study examines why US women play rugby given the social stigma surrounding women’s participation in sports in general, particularly contact sports, and despite the high risk of injury. In a survey of their injury history and potential injury risk factors, 339 female rugby players from 14 teams of varied quality and levels of play from a wide geographic area in the United States were asked why they played the sport. Their responses indicate that women play rugby because they enjoy the game, they like the aggressive aspects of the sport, they appreciate the social aspects of the game, and they believe the sport provides them with positive benefits, such as increased fitness, confidence, and strength. The results of this study indicate that many women are willing to risk injury for the positive rewards that they associate with rugby.