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Ken Lodewyk and Lauren McNamara

); belonging ( Osterman, 2000 ); social relationships ( Umberson & Karaz-Montez, 2010 ); physically active play ( Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010 ); social and emotional competence ( Durlak, Weissberg, Dymnicki, Taylor, & Schellinger, 2011 ); and mental health and well-being ( Birkett

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Hayley E. Christian, Leanne Lester, Mohamed K. Al Marzooqi, Stewart G. Trost, and Alana Papageorgiou

The early years of a child’s life present a unique opportunity to lay the foundation for healthy growth and development. Daily physical activity (PA) plays an important role during early childhood, contributing to young children’s development and decreasing their risk of developing chronic diseases

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Lisa M. Barnett and Owen Makin

, removal of leap, and seven object control: addition of one hand forehand strike, replacement of underhand roll with underhand throw). Young children’s physical activity behavior is primarily play based, so it is conceivable that perception in play related activities (in addition to FMS) may also be

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Jessica L. Chandler, Keith Brazendale, Clemens Drenowatz, Justin B. Moore, Xuemei Sui, Robert G. Weaver, and Michael W. Beets

—organized games (ie, adult led) and unstructured play (ie, free play). 5 , 6 Interventions have largely focused on incorporating adult-led games to increase children’s PA either by increasing the skills of adults to remove inactive elements from traditionally played games and/or by the adoption of PA curricula

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John J. Reilly, Joel Barnes, Silvia Gonzalez, Wendy Y. Huang, Taru Manyanga, Chiaki Tanaka, and Mark S. Tremblay

grades were assigned and reported. To identify data for grade assignment, each research working group searched for credible, recent, and reasonably representative data on 6 behavioral indicators and outcomes ( Overall Physical Activity, Organized Sport and Physical Activity, Active Play, Active

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Annelies Knoppers, Marvin Zuidema, and Barbara Bedker Meyer

The Webb Scale (1969) has been used in much of the research focusing on the professionalization of attitudes via sport. The results of such studies seemed to indicate that the extent to which winning was valued varied by age, gender, and type of sport involvement. However, these findings may in part have been a function of the noncontextual nature of the Webb Scale. In addition, the use of ranking methodology may have forced game orientation into an artificial bipolar continuum bounded by play orientation on one end and professional orientation at the other end. In the current study, the results of the administration of the Webb Scale and the Game Orientation Scale (Knoppers, Schuiteman, & Love, 1986) to 312 youngsters were compared across gender and degree of athletic experience. The Game Orientation Scale uses descriptions of two different sport scenarios and 5-point Likert scales to assess game orientation. The results revealed that game orientation was multidimensional, that the Webb Scale’s validity was questionable, and that professionalization was more a function of measurement and of the type of setting than of a generalized inherent attitude.

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Matthew Pearce, David H. Saunders, Peter Allison, and Anthony P. Turner

indoor or outdoor play tend to be child directed, intermittent, and informal. 2 Young people can also accumulate physical activity during school time. Developing our awareness of how these varied contexts contribute toward daily MVPA targets is essential because each is likely to have different

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Simone A. Tomaz, Trina Hinkley, Rachel A. Jones, Rhian Twine, Kathleen Kahn, Shane A. Norris, and Catherine E. Draper

African (SA) 24-hour movement guidelines ( 12 ) (launched in December 2018) recommend that preschool-aged children engage in 180 minutes of PA per day, inclusive of 60 minutes of “energetic play,” operationalized as moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA). These recommendations align with PA

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Dale B. Read, Ben Jones, Sean Williams, Padraic J. Phibbs, Josh D. Darrall-Jones, Greg A.B. Roe, Jonathon J.S. Weakley, Andrew Rock, and Kevin Till

The physical characteristics of match play (ie, running and collisions) in age-grade (eg, U18 [under-18]) rugby union players is a growing area of research. 1 – 3 Studies using global positioning systems (GPS) have published data from county representative, 4 school, 5 academy, 2 and

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Brendan Dwyer, Joshua M. Lupinek, and Rebecca M. Achen

, Ridinger, & Moorman, 2004 ). Simon ( 1959 ) was one of the first to posit the substantial influence motivation plays within the consumer decision-making process. Motivation is thought of as the key catalyst within the study of consumer behavior ( Schmitt, 2015 ). Mowen and Minor ( 1998 ) defined the