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Katelyn M. Nelson, Elizabeth H.K. Daidone, Katherine M. Breedlove, Debbie A. Bradney, and Thomas G. Bowman

frequency and cumulative severity of head impacts has been shown to be similar for both men’s and women’s soccer players. 8 Although one study has determined there are no differences in impact magnitude across soccer player position or playing scenario, defenders were found to sustain head impacts most

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Jan Boone and Jan Bourgois


The current study aimed to gain insight into the physiological profile of elite basketball players in Belgium in relation to their position on the field.


The group consisted of 144 players, divided into 5 groups according to position (point guards [PGs], shooting guards [SGs], small forwards [SFs], power forwards [PFs], and centers [Cs]). The anthropometrics were measured and the subjects underwent fitness tests (incremental running test, 10-m sprint, 5 ×-10 m, squat and countermovement jump, isokinetic test) to obtain insight into endurance, speed, agility, and power. The parameters of these tests were compared among the different positions by means of 1-way variance analysis (MANOVA). Tukey post hoc tests were performed in case of a significant MANOVA.


It was observed that Cs were taller and heavier and had a higher percentage body fat than PGs and SGs. For the anaerobic sprint test Cs were slower than the other positions. For the 5 × 10-m the PGs and SGs were faster than SFs and PFs. For the jump test Cs displayed a significantly lower absolute performance than the other positions. PGs and SGs had a higher VO2peak and speed at the anaerobic threshold than PFs and Cs. The isokinetic strength test showed that the quadriceps muscle group of Cs could exert a higher torque during knee extension than the other positions.


The current study showed that the physiological profile of elite players in the Belgian first division differs by player position. More specifically, guards were characterized by high endurance, speed, and agility, whereas centers and power forwards had higher muscle strength than the other positions.

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Amelia Ferro, Jorge Villacieros, and Javier Pérez-Tejero

The purpose of this study was to develop a methodology to accurately analyze sprint performance of elite wheelchair basketball (WB) players in their own training context using a laser system and to analyze the velocity curve performed by the players regarding their functional classification and their playing position. Twelve WB players, from the Spanish men’s national team, took part in an oncourt 20-m-sprint test. BioLaserSport® was used to obtain time, mean velocities (Vm), maximum velocities (Vmax), and distances at 90%, 95%, and 98% of their Vmax. Vm and Vmax reached high values in Classes II and III and in the guard playing position. The protocol developed with the laser system makes it possible to obtain a precise velocity curve in short sprints and allows easy analysis of decisive kinematic performance variables in WB players, showing immediate feedback to coaches and players. The normalized data allow an interpretation of how much, where, and when Vmax occurs along the test.

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Tanner M. Filben, Nicholas S. Pritchard, Logan E. Miller, Sarah K. Woods, Megan E. Hayden, Christopher M. Miles, Jillian E. Urban, and Joel D. Stitzel

head impacts) in female collegiate soccer players across session type, player position, impact type, impact location, and ball delivery method. 38 Methods Subjects A sample of female soccer players from a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I team were enrolled in this prospective cohort

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Andreas M. Kasper, S. Andy Sparks, Matthew Hooks, Matthew Skeer, Benjamin Webb, Houman Nia, James P. Morton, and Graeme L. Close

Analysis Data were organized based on demographic information for age group (18–23, 23–28, and >28 years), rugby code (league and union), player position (forwards and backs), and team. Data are presented as percentage of responses, but analysis was conducted on the frequency data. Goodness of fit chi

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John M. Rosene, Christian Merritt, Nick R. Wirth, and Daniel Nguyen

well as player position. All procedures were approved by the University of New England’s institutional review board for the protection of human subjects. Methods Participants Twenty-three men’s lacrosse players (age = 20.25 ± 1.27 years; height = 179.80 ± 7.22 cm; mass = 81.23 ± 9.02 kg) had head

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Kevin M. Cross, Kelly K. Gurka, Susan Saliba, Mark Conaway, and Jay Hertel

level, age, level of play, and event factors. Within the event factors, additional analysis was conducted on event type, time of injury within practices and competitions, time of season, player position, field location, practice type, soccer activity, and injury mechanism. Table  1 presents the levels

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Michael S. Guss, John P. Begly, Austin J. Ramme, David P. Taormina, Michael E. Rettig, and John T. Capo

performance variable—Wins Above Replacement (WAR). Demographic data including age and player position were recorded. Performance data recorded for one season before and after injury included isolated power (ISO); on-base plus slugging (OPS); batting average; and rates for doubles, triples, homeruns, strike

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Joseph J. Crisco, Bethany J. Wilcox, Jason T. Machan, Thomas W. McAllister, Ann-Christine Duhaime, Stefan M. Duma, Steven Rowson, Jonathan G. Beckwith, Jeffrey J. Chu, and Richard M. Greenwald

The purpose of this study was to quantify the severity of head impacts sustained by individual collegiate football players and to investigate differences between impacts sustained during practice and game sessions, as well as by player position and impact location. Head impacts (N = 184,358) were analyzed for 254 collegiate players at three collegiate institutions. In practice, the 50th and 95th percentile values for individual players were 20.0 g and 49.5 g for peak linear acceleration, 1187 rad/s2 and 3147 rad/s2 for peak rotational acceleration, and 13.4 and 29.9 for HITsp, respectively. Only the 95th percentile HITsp increased significantly in games compared with practices (8.4%, p = .0002). Player position and impact location were the largest factors associated with differences in head impacts. Running backs consistently sustained the greatest impact magnitudes. Peak linear accelerations were greatest for impacts to the top of the helmet, whereas rotational accelerations were greatest for impacts to the front and back. The findings of this study provide essential data for future investigations that aim to establish the correlations between head impact exposure, acute brain injury, and long-term cognitive deficits.

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Lael Gershgoren, Edson Medeiros Filho, Gershon Tenenbaum, and Robert J. Schinke

This study was aimed at capturing the components comprising shared mental models (SMM) and the training methods used to address SMM in one athletic program context. To meet this aim, two soccer coaches from the same collegiate program were interviewed and observed extensively during practices and games throughout the 2009–2010 season. In addition, documents (e.g., players’ positioning on free kicks sheet) from the soccer program were reviewed. The data were analyzed inductively through a thematic analysis to develop models that operationalize SMM through its components, and training. Game intelligence and game philosophy were the two main operational themes defining SMM. Moreover, four themes emerged for SMM training: (a) the setting, (b) compensatory communication, (c) reinforcement, and (d) instruction. SMM was embedded within a more comprehensive conceptual framework of team chemistry, including emotional, social, and cognitive dimensions. Implications of these conceptual frameworks are considered for sport psychologists and coaches.