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Felipe García-Pinillos, Carlos Lago-Fuentes, Pedro A. Latorre-Román, Antonio Pantoja-Vallejo and Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo

probably related to lower mechanical stress than other plyometric exercises like drop jumps performed from high heights. This may help to “preserve” the musculoskeletal system from excessive loading, especially before habitual running sessions. Conclusions When compared with a control warm-up routine

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Deepika Singla and M. Ejaz Hussain

body plyometric exercises using medicine balls on the speed of the ball thrown, 17 whereas the other study compared the effects of 6 weeks of plyometric push-up training and dynamic push-up training on the upper body power. 18 It is clear that more research is needed to determine the effects of such

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Michelle L. Weber, Kenneth C. Lam and Tamara C. Valovich McLeod

Clinical Question:

In youth and adolescent athletes, are jumping/plyometric exercises more effective than balance exercises in preventing sport-related injuries?

Objective:

The aim of this article is to examine the meta-analysis by Rössler et al.1 as it relates to the clinical question.

Conclusion:

Evidence in this meta-analysis suggests that injury prevention programs provide beneficial effects in injury reduction for youth and adolescent athletes. Prevention programs that contained jumping or plyometric exercises and were targeted toward females appeared to be especially beneficial for decreasing injury risk.

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Jeffrey R. Doeringer, Megan Colas, Corey Peacock and Dustin R. Gatens

It is common practice for athletes to treat their aches and pain after training with cold-water immersion. The purpose of this study is to determine if cold-water immersion affects an athlete’s postexercise recovery on muscle performance or pain perception. Twenty-two subjects were assessed on measures of pain and muscle performance tests and then randomly assigned to a cryotherapy or control group after performing plyometric exercises. Cryotherapy resulted in substantially less perception of pain 24 hr postexercise compared with the control, however, muscle performance was not substantially effected. Our results demonstrate that cryotherapy may be beneficial for reducing postexercise pain perception.

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Torstein E. Dæhlin, Ole C. Haugen, Simen Haugerud, Ivana Hollan, Truls Raastad and Bent R. Rønnestad

Background:

Combined plyometric and strength training has previously been suggested as a strategy to improve skating performance in ice hockey players. However, the effects of combined plyometric and strength training have not previously been compared with the effects of strength training only.

Purpose:

To compare the effects of combined plyometric and strength training on ice hockey players’ skating sprint performance with those of strength training only.

Methods:

Eighteen participants were randomly assigned to 2 groups that completed 5 strength-training sessions/wk for 8 wk. One group included plyometric exercises at the start of 3 sessions/wk (PLY+ST), and the other group included core exercises in the same sessions (ST). Tests of 10- and 35-m skating sprints, horizontal jumping, 1-repetition-maximum (1 RM) squat, skating multistage aerobic test (SMAT), maximal oxygen consumption, repeated cycle sprints, and body composition were performed before and after the intervention.

Results:

The participants increased their 1RM squat, lean mass, and body mass (P < .05), with no difference between the groups. Furthermore, they improved their 3×broad jump, repeated cycle sprint, and SMAT performance (P < .05), with no difference between the groups. PLY+ST gained a larger improvement in 10-m on-ice sprint performance than ST (P < .025).

Conclusion:

Combining plyometric and strength training for 8 wk was superior to strength training alone at improving 10-m on-ice sprint performance in high-level ice hockey players.

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Abbas Asadi, Hamid Arazi, Warren B. Young and Eduardo Sáez de Villarreal

Purpose:

To show a clear picture about the possible variables of enhancements of change-of-direction (COD) ability using longitudinal plyometric-training (PT) studies and determine specific factors that influence the training effects.

Methods:

A computerized search was performed, and 24 articles with a total of 46 effect sizes (ESs) in an experimental group and 25 ESs in a control group were reviewed to analyze the role of various factors on the impact of PT on COD performance.

Results:

The results showed that participants with good fitness levels obtained greater improvements in COD performance (P < .05), and basketball players gained more benefits of PT than other athletes. Also, men obtained COD results similar to those of women after PT. In relation to the variables of PT design, it appears that 7 wk (with 2 sessions/wk) using moderate intensity and 100 jumps per training session with a 72-h rest interval tends to improve COD ability. Performing PT with a combination of different types of plyometric exercises such as drop jumps + vertical jumps + standing long jumps is better than 1 form of exercise.

Conclusion:

It is apparent that PT can be effective at improving COD ability. The loading parameters are essential for exercise professionals, coaches, and strength and conditioning professionals with regard to the most appropriate dose-response trends to optimize plyometric-induced COD-ability gains.

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İlker Eren, Nazan Canbulat, Ata Can Atalar, Şule Meral Eren, Ayla Uçak, Önder Çerezci and Mehmet Demirhan

proprioception and gaining agility Capsular stretching exercises for full ROM Strengthening for rotator cuff and scapular stabilizers (dumbbell and thera band) Closed kinetic chain exercises for scapular stabilizers (push-up, press-up, and rowing) Plyometric exercises after 16th wk V: Functional phase (22nd wk

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Peter A. van de Hoef, Jur J. Brauers, Maarten van Smeden, Frank J.G. Backx and Michel S. Brink

sports to meet these demands and improve physical performance is plyometric training. Plyometric exercises are characterized by explosive muscle extension and contraction and are thought to improve neural efficiency. 4 These specific exercises consist of 3 phases: (1) the (eccentric) preactivation phase

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Brian W. Wiese, Kevin Miller and Eduardo Godoy

Proprioceptive exercises Rhythmic stabilization 3 × 30-s flexion, abduction, scaption No pain with plyometric exercises Plyometric exercises Dumbbell raises 3 × 12 flexion, abduction, scaption Body blade 3 × 30-s flexion, abduction, scaption Abbreviations: AAROM = active assistive range of motion; AROM = active

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Nicole Cascia, Tim L. Uhl and Carolyn M. Hettrich

and forearm strengthening • Fourth week consisted of 2-hand plyometric exercises • Fifth week consisted of 1-handed plyometrics • Sixth week began progressive return to throwing program Outcome measures Tear location, grade, and RTP RTP defined by modified Conway Scale: • Excellent = RTSP • Good = RTP