Plyometric training is a method aimed at improving conditioning capacities that require the fast development of muscular force ( 27 ). This form of training uses the stretch-shortening cycle in order to enhance the ability of the neuromuscular system to produce maximal force in the shortest
Kemal Idrizovic, Bahri Gjinovci, Damir Sekulic, Ognjen Uljevic, Paulo Vicente João, Miodrag Spasic, and Tine Sattler
Audrey R.C. Elias, Curt D. Hammill, and Ryan L. Mizner
Though essential to athletic performance, the ability to land from a jump often remains limited following injury. While recommended, jump training is difficult to include in rehabilitation programs due to high impact forces. Body weight support (BWS) is frequently used in rehabilitation of gait following neurological and orthopedic injury, and may also allow improved rehabilitation of high-impact tasks. There is a differential effect of BWS on walking and running gaits, and the effect of BWS on movements with relatively large vertical displacement is unknown. The current study evaluates the effect of BWS on a replicable singleleg hopping task. We posited that progressive BWS would decrease limb loading while maintaining the joint kinematics of the task. Twenty-eight participants repetitively hopped on and off a box at each of four BWS levels. Peak vertical ground reaction forces decreased by 22.5% between 0% and 30% BWS (P < .001). Average hip, knee, and ankle internal moments decreased by 0.5 N·m/kg each. Slight kinematic changes across BWS levels were clinically insignificant. The high level of task specificity evidenced by consistent kinematics coupled with a similar reduction of internal moment at each joint suggests that BWS may be a useful strategy for rehabilitation of jumping tasks.
Athanasios Chatzinikolaou, Konstantinos Michaloglou, Alexandra Avloniti, Diamanda Leontsini, Chariklia K. Deli, Dimitris Vlachopoulos, Luis Gracia-Marco, Sotirios Arsenis, Ioannis Athanailidis, Dimitrios Draganidis, Athanasios Z. Jamurtas, Craig A. Williams, and Ioannis G. Fatouros
, strength, plyometric, and sprint training) in peripubertal years is quite effective in promoting the athletic development of youth due to the increased plasticity of the neuromuscular system before, during, and after the period of peak height velocity. 6 Strength training (ST) using more traditional power
Andrew Sortwell, Michael Newton, Daniel A. Marinho, Jorge Knijnik, and Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo
plyometric training ( Behringer et al., 2011 ; Davies et al., 2015 ). However, the potential impact of a plyometric-based program on neuromuscular power and motor performance skills, within the primary school “physical education” setting is currently underinvestigated ( Lloyd, Oliver, et al., 2015 ). In
Sophie E. Heywood, Benjamin F. Mentiplay, Ann E. Rahmann, Jodie A. McClelland, Paula R. Geigle, Kelly J. Bower, and Ross A. Clark
Plyometric training involves body-weight jumping, hopping, or bounding utilizing the stretch-shortening cycle. 1 , 2 Performance of plyometric exercise includes explosive concentric contractions in functional patterns of movement. 2 , 3 Plyometric training is effective in young, healthy
Deepika Singla and M. Ejaz Hussain
In the past, plyometric training has proved to be effective in improving athletic performance. 1 It may serve to reduce and prevent injuries and acts as a rehabilitation tool in case of injured sports persons who desire to return to sports and achieve optimal sports performance. 2 , 3 Recent
David Docherty and Matthew J. Hodgson
Recently there has been considerable interest and research into the functional significance of postactivation potentiation (PAP) on sport performance. The interest has evolved around the potential for enhancing acute performance or the long-term training effect, typically in the form of complex training. Complex training usually involves performing a weight-training exercise with high loads before executing a plyometric exercise with similar biomechanical demands. Despite a considerable amount of research in the past 10 years it would seem there is still much research to be done to fully determine whether PAP has a functional role and, if so, how to best exploit it. It is clear from the research that there are many factors that need to be considered when attempting to apply PAP to an athlete. It is possible that a well-conceived sport-specific warm-up might be as or more effective in enhancing acute performance and easier to apply in a practical setting. In addition, despite its current popularity, there has not been 1 study that has effectively examined the efficacy of complex training and whether it has any advantage over other forms of training that combine weight training and plyometrics but not in the same training session.
Yiannis Michailidis, Alexandros Tabouris, and Thomas Metaxas
discriminate between a successful and an unsuccessful performance. Therefore, power training is very important in soccer. Plyometric training (PT) is an effective way of improving the rate of both force development and sprint performance. 5 It involves a variety of jumps and actions that are characterized by
Kate R. Pfile, Phillip A. Gribble, Gretchen E. Buskirk, Sara M. Meserth, and Brian G. Pietrosimone
Epidemiological data demonstrate the need for lower-extremity injury-prevention training. Neuromuscularcontrol (NMC) programs are immediately effective at minimizing lower-extremity injury risk and improving sport-related performance measures. Research investigating lasting effects after an injury-prevention program is limited.
To determine whether dynamic balance, landing mechanics, and hamstring and quadriceps strength could be improved after a 6-wk NMC intervention and maintained for a season.
Prospective case series.
11 Division I women’s basketball players (age 19.40 ± 1.35 y, height 178.05 ± 7.52 cm, mass 72.86 ± 10.70 kg).
Subjects underwent testing 3 times, completing the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), Landing Error Scoring System (LESS), and isometric strength testing for the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles. Pretest and posttest 1 occurred immediately before and after the intervention, respectively, and posttest 2 at the end of the competitive season, 9 mo after posttest 1. Subjects participated in eighteen 30-min plyometric and NMC-training sessions over a 6-wk period.
Main Outcome Measures:
The normalized SEBT composite score, normalized peak isometric hamstrings:quadriceps (H:Q) ratio, and the LESS total score.
The mean composite reach significantly improved over time (F 2,10 = 6.96, P = .005) where both posttest scores were significantly higher than pretest (70.41% ± 4.08%) (posttest 1 73.48% ± 4.19%, t 10 = –3.11, P = .011) and posttest 2 (74.2% ± 4.77%, t 10 = –3.78, P = .004). LESS scores significantly improved over time (F 2,10 = 6.29, P = .009). The pretest LESS score (7.30 ± 3.40) was higher than posttest 1 (4.9 ± 1.20, t 10 = 2.71, P = .024) and posttest 2 (5.44 ± 1.83, t 10 = 2.58, P = .030). There were no statistically significant differences (P > .05) over time for the H:Q ratio when averaging both legs (F 2,10 = 0.83, P = .45).
A 6-wk NMC program improved landing mechanics and dynamic balance over a 9-mo period in women’s basketball players. NMC adaptations can be retained without an in-season maintenance program.
Peter A. van de Hoef, Jur J. Brauers, Maarten van Smeden, Frank J.G. Backx, and Michel S. Brink
sports to meet these demands and improve physical performance is plyometric training. Plyometric exercises are characterized by explosive muscle extension and contraction and are thought to improve neural efficiency. 4 These specific exercises consist of 3 phases: (1) the (eccentric) preactivation phase