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Ryan G. Overmayer and Matthew W. Driller

throughout the entire study (19.5°C [1°C]). (2) ISPC—Participants remained in a seated position with pneumatic compression sleeves (Recovery Boots; Recovery Pump, LLC, Concordville, PA) fitted to each leg. The ISPC device was set to a pressure of 80 mm Hg, with a deflation time of 30 seconds, for a total

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Hawley Chase Almstedt and Zakkoyya H. Lewis

Context:

Intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) is a common therapeutic modality used to reduce swelling after trauma and prevent thrombosis due to postsurgical immobilization. Limited evidence suggests that IPC may decrease the time needed to rehabilitate skeletal fractures and increase bone remodeling.

Objective:

To establish feasibility and explore the novel use of a common therapeutic modality, IPC, on bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip of noninjured volunteers.

Design:

Within-subjects intervention.

Setting:

University research laboratory.

Participants:

Noninjured participants (3 male, 6 female) completed IPC treatment on 1 leg 1 h/d, 5 d/wk for 10 wk. Pressure was set to 60 mm Hg when using the PresSsion and Flowtron Hydroven compression units.

Main Outcome Measures:

Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess BMD of the hip in treated and nontreated legs before and after the intervention. Anthropometrics, regular physical activity, and nutrient intake were also assessed.

Results:

The average number of completed intervention sessions was 43.4 (± 3.8) at an average duration of 9.6 (± 0.8) wk. Repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated a significant time-by-treatment effect at the femoral neck (P = .023), trochanter (P = .027), and total hip (P = .008). On average, the treated hip increased 0.5–1.0%, while the nontreated hip displayed a 0.7–1.9% decrease, depending on the bone site.

Conclusion:

Results of this exploratory investigation suggest that IPC is a therapeutic modality that is safe and feasible for further investigation on its novel use in optimizing bone health.

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Susan G. Capps and Mayberry Brook

Edited by Tricia Hubbard

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Steven J. Kavros

Plantar fasciitis is a common foot disorder that affects more than two million Americans each year. Conservative management of plantar fasciitis is the first line of treatment by the medical specialist who frequently encounters this common foot complaint. In this study, 50 patients with plantar fasciitis of 4 weeks duration but less than 12 weeks were randomized into two groups. One group of 25 patients used the AirHeel (Aircast, Inc.) and the second group of 25 used the 1st Step prefabricated foot insert (Wrymark, Inc). Standardized weight-bearing radiographs were obtained in order to categorize the foot type: normal arch, pes planus, or pes cavus. Patients were initially evaluated and at 12 weeks they returned for a subsequent visit. The contact area of the foot with the AirHeel and 1st Step insert were similar, an increase of 27% and 26%, respectively, over the contact area barefoot. There was a noted difference in force reduction with the two devices. The AirHeel reduced the midstance force by 20.19%, as compared to the 1st Step insert which showed a 1.03% increase in midstance force. Patients with a higher initial pain score seemed to respond better initially to the AirHeel (p = 0.015) than the 1st Step insert (p = 0.035). This study demonstrates the benefits of offloading the foot at midstance with two devices to relieve the discomfort associated with plantar fasciitis. The Aircast AirHeel is a new modality for dynamic, functional treatment of proximal plantar fasciitis.

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Llion A. Roberts, Johnpaul Caia, Lachlan P. James, Tannath J. Scott and Vincent G. Kelly

pneumatic compression (IPC) garments, which aligns with the current popularity of this therapy within the worldwide athletic community. Such IPC garments are worn on the arms and/or legs, with a methodological principle based on applying rhythmic, time-gated pressures ranging from 60 to 80 mm Hg 6 – 8

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Kelly A. Brock, Lindsey E. Eberman, Richard H. Laird IV, David J. Elmer and Kenneth E. Games

cryotherapy, 11 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications, 11 stretching, 11 contrast water therapy, 10 , 11 and intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC). 11 – 16 IPC was initially introduced as an intervention to prevent deep vein thrombosis. 13 Today, IPC is still used in medicine for that same

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Suzanna Russell, Angus G. Evans, David G. Jenkins and Vincent G. Kelly

the importance of optimizing and accelerating the recovery process. This demand has catalyzed the use of various different methods including cold- and contrast-water immersion, pneumatic compression, and compression garments to improve recovery. 2 External counterpulsation therapy (ECP) uses

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Pedro L. Valenzuela, Guillermo Sánchez-Martínez, Elaia Torrontegi, Zigor Montalvo, Alejandro Lucia and Pedro de la Villa

original hypothesis, another compression-based recovery strategy, intermittent sequential pneumatic compression, has proven beneficial in nontrained individuals, 21 , 22 but not in trained subjects. 23 – 25 Other recovery strategies based on external compression have been previously studied in the

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Jennifer Ostrowski, Angelina Purchio, Maria Beck, JoLynn Leisinger, Mackenzie Tucker and Sarah Hurst

D . Therapeutic Modalities: The Art and Science . 2nd ed. Baltimore, MD :  Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ; 2013 . 17. Holwerda S , Trowbridge C , Womochel K , Keller D . Effects of cold modality application with static and intermittent pneumatic compression on tissue temperature and

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Michael Kellmann, Maurizio Bertollo, Laurent Bosquet, Michel Brink, Aaron J. Coutts, Rob Duffield, Daniel Erlacher, Shona L. Halson, Anne Hecksteden, Jahan Heidari, K. Wolfgang Kallus, Romain Meeusen, Iñigo Mujika, Claudio Robazza, Sabrina Skorski, Ranel Venter and Jürgen Beckmann

-body cryotherapy, compression garments, massage, intermittent pneumatic compression, electrostimulation, sauna, far-infrared therapy). The outcomes emphasize that the efficacy of specific recovery interventions needs to be determined in the context of the athlete and his or her schedule and current short- and long