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Temitope Erinosho, Derek Hales, Amber Vaughn, Stephanie Mazzucca and Dianne S. Ward

Background:

This study assessed physical activity and screen time policies in child-care centers and their associations with physical activity and screen time practices and preschool children’s (3–5 years old) physical activity.

Methods:

Data were from 50 child-care centers in North Carolina. Center directors reported on the presence/absence of written policies. Trained research assistants observed physical activity and screen time practices in at least 1 preschool classroom across 3 to 4 days. Children (N = 544) wore accelerometers to provide an objective measure of physical activity.

Results:

Physical activity and screen time policies varied across centers. Observational data showed 82.7 min/d of active play opportunities were provided to children. Screen time provided did not exceed 30 min/d/child at 98% of centers. Accelerometer data showed children spent 38 min/d in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and 206 min/d in sedentary activity. Policies about staff supervision of media use were negatively associated with screen time (P < .05). Contrary to expectation, policies about physical activity were associated with less time in physical activity.

Conclusions:

Clear strategies are needed for translating physical activity policies to practice. Further research is needed to evaluate the quality of physical activity policies, their impact on practice, and ease of operationalization.

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Alixandra N. Krahn

she sees untapped or unappreciated leadership talent or potential” ( Kerr & Banwell, 2016 , p. 2). In addition, government support, aimed at advancing women into high levels of sport coaching, has resulted in the creation of policy (e.g., Actively Engaged: A Policy on Sport for Women and Girls) which

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Jennifer Ann McGetrick, Krystyna Kongats, Kim D. Raine, Corinne Voyer and Candace I.J. Nykiforuk

on the environmental (eg, natural/built) and policy (eg, regulation/legislation) determinants of physical activity are the 2 most promising strategies to promote physical activity at the population level. 7 , 8 Policy influencers (eg, those who are in a position of authority or “with influence in

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Liam J.A. Lenten, Aaron C.T. Smith and Ralph-Christopher Bayer

(WADA) presented its initial antidoping policy code in 2003 based upon the assumption that unrestricted PES use undermines elite sport’s social utility, credibility, and long-term viability. WADA’s antidoping code declares that the use of certain substances confers users with an unfair advantage and

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Hannah G. Calvert, Lindsey Turner, Julien Leider, Elizabeth Piekarz-Porter and Jamie F. Chriqui

accrued. Given this, other opportunities for PA, which represent a broad range of experiences of movement such as dancing, games, free play, and sport, are needed throughout, as well as before and after, the school day. The CSPAP model does not explicitly outline policy supports for PA, and there is

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Leigh Ann Ganzar, Nalini Ranjit, Debra Saxton and Deanna M. Hoelscher

as an important setting for health promotion, especially the presence of environmental and noncurricular components, including policies around physical activity promotion. 10 , 11 In addition, policies implemented at the organizational level, such as an individual school, have the potential to

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Karen S. Meaney and Sonya L. Armstrong

retention ( Frazier, 2011 ; Lester, 2013 ; McKay et al., 2008 ; Twale & De Luca, 2008 ), the purpose of this paper is to offer insights gleaned from the extant literature and policy. Most faculty have likely engaged in some form of informal commiseration (i.e., hallway chats) on experienced or observed

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Jeanette Gustat, Christopher E. Anderson, Keelia O’Malley, Tian Hu, Rachel G. Tabak, Karin Valentine Goins, Cheryl Valko, Jill S. Litt and Amy A. Eyler

behavior are key recommendations for reducing the risk of obesity and related comorbidities. 7 As individual behavioral modifications have limited population impact, environmental and policy approaches are considered efficient ways to address obesity. 8 , 9 The Community Preventive Services Task Force

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Laurence Chalip

Over the past two decades, policy analysis has developed as a collection of formal methods to enhance policy design and implementation. Interpretive and critical methods for policy analysis have recently been advocated as a way to clarify the parameters of policy problems and thereby improve policy formulation and implementation. The heuristic basis for interpretive and critical policy analysis is consistent with contemporary findings in the psychology of decision making. Formal methods for interpretive and critical policy analysis are elaborated and illustrated via application to the drafting of the U.S. Amateur Sports Act (PL 95-606). It is shown that the methods illumine decision processes that have caused sport development to become subordinate to the administrative rationalization of American Olympic sport governance.

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Landy Di Lu and Kathryn L. Heinze

adoption of new sport policies across geographic boundaries, including institutional factors associated with heterogeneity in adoption speed. Institutional change includes not only practice or structural change at the organizational level but also policy change at the state, regional, or national level