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Laurence Chalip

Over the past two decades, policy analysis has developed as a collection of formal methods to enhance policy design and implementation. Interpretive and critical methods for policy analysis have recently been advocated as a way to clarify the parameters of policy problems and thereby improve policy formulation and implementation. The heuristic basis for interpretive and critical policy analysis is consistent with contemporary findings in the psychology of decision making. Formal methods for interpretive and critical policy analysis are elaborated and illustrated via application to the drafting of the U.S. Amateur Sports Act (PL 95-606). It is shown that the methods illumine decision processes that have caused sport development to become subordinate to the administrative rationalization of American Olympic sport governance.

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Laurence Chalip

Policy analytic methods derived from hermeneutics and critical theory are particularly useful for the analysis of sport policy discourse. A key objective of such methods is to provide analyses with the potential to empower stakeholders by locating key attributions and legitimations that direct and constrain policy options. This concern for empowerment links policy analysis to recent arguments for the utility of participatory action research in sport management. Techniques of critical policy analysis provide a useful adjunct tool because they furnish interpretations and critiques that can be used by undervalued or excluded stakeholders to challenge debilitating policy assumptions. Two key Procedures for critical interpretation are illustrated via application to the discourse guiding the formulation of New Zealand's sport policies. Legitimation critique exposes key reasons why athletes were never pivotal to policy deliberations, and why subsequent policy outcomes fail to address key athlete concerns. Attribution critique illumines the presuppositions that caused the development of sport infrastructure or sport programs to be excluded from the policy focus. It is argued that policy design failures of this kind can be averted via the application of critical policy analysis during policy design.

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Inge Derom and Donna Lee

Background:

The City of Vancouver, British Columbia strategically designed and implemented a municipal health promotion policy—the Vancouver Active Communities policy—to leverage the 2010 Olympic Games. The goal of the policy was to increase physical activity participation among Vancouver residents by 2010.

Methods:

In this paper, we conduct a critical policy analysis of health promotion policy documents that were available on the City of Vancouver’s website.

Results:

We elaborate on the background to the policy and more specifically we examine its content: the problem definition, policy goals, and policy instruments.

Discussion:

Our analysis showed inconsistency within the policy, particularly because the implemented policy instruments were not designed to address needs of the identified target populations in need of health promotion efforts, which were used to legitimize the approval of funding for the policy. Inconsistency across municipal policies, especially in terms of promoting physical activity among low-income residents, was also problematic.

Conclusions:

If other municipalities seek to leverage health promotion funding related to hosting sport mega-events, the programs and services should be designed to benefit the target populations used to justify the funding. Furthermore, municipalities should clearly indicate how funding will be maintained beyond the life expectancy of the mega-event.

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Phillip Ward, Melissa Parker, Sue Sutherland and Christina Sinclair

Concerns have been raised in the Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) doctoral education literature regarding: (a) the narrowness of research preparation, (b) the emphasis on disciplinary silos, (c) the lack of competitiveness and innovation within and beyond academia, and (d) the role of graduate assistants. These concerns mirror those in the professoriate at large regarding doctoral education. There is, however, little research that has examined these issues in our field. In this paper we report on the content studied in the core curriculum of doctoral programs, admission requirements, number of full and part time students, number of faculty serving these students, funding supporting students, and type and scope of research classes. Data were collected from websites as well as other public domain sources and open-ended interviews with faculty members in each program. We discuss the findings and implications for PETE.

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Phillip Ward, Sue Sutherland, Marianne L. Woods, B. Ann Boyce, Grace Goc Karp, Michael Judd, Melissa Parker, G. Linda Rikard and Christina Sinclair

In this paper, we situate the findings from the studies in this thematic issue within the current policy environment that influences the status, rankings, and funding contexts for doctoral programs in Physical Education Teacher Education within and across institutions. We identify common challenges that these doctoral programs are confronted with including the recruitment of doctoral students, the lack of diversity of faculty and students, the purpose of the doctoral degree, and core content knowledge for the degree. Throughout the discussion we provide questions and recommendations for the field to consider.

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Mathew Dowling and Marvin Washington

This investigation examined how a network of knowledge-based professionals—the Canadian Sport for Life Leadership Team (CS4LLT)—as a newly emerging organizational form was able to influence the Canadian sport policy and governance process in an attempt to reshape Canadian sport. The analysis draws upon the epistemic community approach (Haas, 1992; Haas & Adler, 1992) and empirical data collected as part of an in-depth case study examination into the leadership team and senior Sport Canada officials. The findings support the notion that the CS4LLT, as a network of knowledge-based professionals with legitimated and authoritative and policy-relevant expertise (epistemic community), was able to influence the Canadian sport policy process through (i) influencing key governmental actors by (re)framing policy-relevant issues and (ii) establishing knowledge/truth claims surrounding athlete development, which, in turn, enabled direct and indirect involvement in and influence over the sport policy renewal process. More broadly, the study draws attention to the potential role and importance of knowledge-based professional networks as a fluid, dynamic, and responsive approach to organizing and managing sport that can reframe policy debates, insert ideas, and enable policy learning.

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Andrew Yiannakis

In the last decade, the issue of relevance and application has become the focus of concern for many sport sociologists. The need for an applied sociology of sport has been discussed in the literature, and has been the subject of deliberation at three major national conferences. Yet, efforts to develop an applied sociology of sport are still hindered by widely held beliefs that such activity is not worthy of our best efforts. This paper explores issues that continue to hinder the development of applied work in sociology and sport sociology today. The discussion focuses on such issues as value neutrality, the relationship of theory to application, and problems of definition, among others, and provides a theoretical context for grounding the present discourse. The result is the development of a conceptual model that clarifies the transfer of knowledge from applied research to implementation in various physical education, coaching, marketing, policy analysis, and counseling contexts. Also identified is a variety of roles (e.g., applied researcher, knowledge broker, change agent) that an applied sport sociologist may legitimately engage in.

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Asaduzzaman Khan, Mohammad Abdul Kadir, Sohel Reza Choudhury, Fatema Ashraf, Mahbubur Rahman, Kazi Rumana Ahmed, K. M. Saif-Ur-Rahman, Sonia Parvin and Riaz Uddin

://ecd-bangladesh.net/document/documents/National-Children-Policy-2011-English-04.12.2012.pdf . Accessed February 18, 2018. 6. Biswas T , Pervin S , Tanim MIA , Niessen L , Islam A . Bangladesh policy on prevention and control of non-communicable diseases: a policy analysis . BMC Public Health . 2017 ; 17 : 582 . PubMed ID: 28629430 doi:10.1186/s

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Tracy Nau, Karen Lee, Ben J. Smith, William Bellew, Lindsey Reece, Peter Gelius, Harry Rutter and Adrian Bauman

, organizational, economic, and cultural challenges. 14 Systematic policy analysis studies have been conducted nationally and internationally to examine the nature, quality, and implementation of PA promotion policies and to identify factors requiring further attention. A study in Finland reported on the policies

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Thomas J. Templin, Kim C. Graber and K. Andrew R. Richards

-Hammond , L. , Holtzman , D.J. , Gatlin , S.J. , & Heilig , J.V. ( 2005 ). Does teacher preparation matter? Evidence about teacher certification, Teach for America, and teacher effectiveness . Education Policy Analysis Archives, 13 ( 42 ). 10.14507/epaa.v13n42.2005 DeAngelis , K.J. , Wall , A