as an important setting for health promotion, especially the presence of environmental and noncurricular components, including policies around physical activity promotion. 10 , 11 In addition, policies implemented at the organizational level, such as an individual school, have the potential to
Leigh Ann Ganzar, Nalini Ranjit, Debra Saxton, and Deanna M. Hoelscher
Jeanette Gustat, Christopher E. Anderson, Keelia O’Malley, Tian Hu, Rachel G. Tabak, Karin Valentine Goins, Cheryl Valko, Jill S. Litt, and Amy A. Eyler
behavior are key recommendations for reducing the risk of obesity and related comorbidities. 7 As individual behavioral modifications have limited population impact, environmental and policy approaches are considered efficient ways to address obesity. 8 , 9 The Community Preventive Services Task Force
Taylor K. Wise
policy specific to atheltes with EDs than a policy intended for the general student body. As a unique subpopulation of people with EDs, athletes likely require diagnostic criteria and treatment that meet their specific needs ( Beals & Manroe, 1994 ). This specialization should come in the form of the
Jerome N. Rachele, Vincent Learnihan, Hannah M. Badland, Suzanne Mavoa, Gavin Turrell, and Billie Giles-Corti
, including higher residential density, 5 a mix of destinations accessible within 10 minutes, 6 – 8 improved street connectivity, 9 sun-protected areas, 10 public transport, 10 well-maintained footpaths, 10 and safety from traffic. 11 Government policy shapes the physical makeup of communities and the
Bryan A. McCullick, Thomas Baker, Phillip D. Tomporowski, Thomas J. Templin, Karen Lux, and Tiffany Isaac
The purpose of this study was to analyze state school-based physical education (SBPE) policies’ text and the resulting legal implications. A textualist approach to the legal method of Statutory Interpretation framed the data analysis. Findings revealed the difficulty of determining with clarity a majority of PE statutes and it is probable that based on current wording, courts could not play a role in interpreting these statutes, thus leaving interpretation to educational authorities. Significant variability of how authorities interpret statutes increases the challenge of consistent interpretation or adherence to the NASPE Guidelines for Quality Physical Education and whether meaningful policy study can be conducted to determine if SBPE makes an impact.
Katherine A. Stamatakis, Timothy D. McBride, and Ross C. Brownson
While effective interventions to promote physical activity have been identified, efforts to translate these interventions into policy have lagged behind. To improve the translation of evidence into policy, researchers and public health practitioners need to consider new ways for communicating health promoting messages to state and local policymakers.
In this article, we describe issues related to the translation of evidence supporting physical activity promotion, and offer some communication approaches and tools that are likely to be beneficial in translating research to policy.
We discuss the use of narrative (ie, stories) and describe its potential role in improving communication of research in policy-making settings. In addition, we provide an outline for the development and design of policy briefs on physical activity, and for how to target these briefs effectively to policy-oriented audiences.
Improvements in researchers' and practitioners' abilities to translate the evidence they generate into high-quality materials for policy makers can greatly enhance efforts to enact policies that promote physical activity.
Susan G. Zieff, Claudia M. Guedes, and Amy Eyler
Neighborhood environment and resources affect physical activity. This study examined the relationships between San Francisco residents’ perceived barriers to physical activity and policy-maker perspectives of conditions in neighborhoods that are under-served for physical activity.
Nine focus groups comprised of primarily African American, Chinese American, and Latino populations were constructed from 6 low-income neighborhoods to respond to questions based on the social-ecological model about neighborhood recreational opportunities and to offer policy and intervention strategies to increase physical activity. A tenth focus group was conducted with staff members from 7 city departments to respond to neighborhood focus groups outcomes. The transcribed videotaped discussions were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.
Both residents and policy-makers highlighted neighborhood disparities that reduce physical activity including unsafe and unhealthy environments and difficulty accessing available resources. Residents reported fewer available free or low-cost resources than those identified by policy-makers.
Findings suggest that policy-makers would benefit from consideration of neighborhood-level affects of policies on physical activity and local residents’ recommendations for policies affecting physical activity. Concordance between residents’ perceptions and policy-maker perceptions of neighborhood conditions for physical activity was greater than reported in previous literature.
Anna E. Mathews, Delores Pluto, Olga Ogoussan, and Jorge Banda
When promoting active travel to school, it is important to consider school and district policies as well as attitudes of school and district administrators.
School principals and district officials in South Carolina participated in the School Travel Survey. Frequency distributions and Chi-squared tests were used to analyze the data.
Three hundred fourteen persons responded to the survey (53.2% response rate). Sixty-five percent of district officials reported having a clear position about students walking to school, 80.0% of which were supportive. Seventy-two percent of principals reported having a clear position about walking to school, 67% of which were supportive. These positions were most commonly communicated either orally or through memos or other written documentation rather than through official, written policies or directives. Respondents who personally supported walking to school were more likely to believe that walking to school benefited students' health (χ2 = 8.82, df = 1, P = .003) and academic performance (χ2 = 14.87, df = 1, P < .0001).
Promotion of walking to school should encourage schools and districts to develop official, written directives or policies. Promotional efforts may benefit from linking active travel to academic performance and health.
Kelly R. Evenson, Fang Wen, Sarah M. Lee, Katie M. Heinrich, and Amy Eyler
A Healthy People 2010 developmental objective (22-12) was set to increase the proportion of the nation's public and private schools that provide access to their physical activity spaces and facilities for all persons outside of normal school hours. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of indoor and outdoor facilities at schools and the availability of those facilities to the public in 2000 and 2006.
In 2000 and 2006, the School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) was conducted in each state and in randomly selected districts, schools, and classrooms. This analysis focused on the school level questionnaire from a nationally representative sample of public and nonpublic elementary, middle, and high schools (n = 921 in 2000 and n = 984 in 2006).
No meaningful changes in the prevalence of access to school physical activity facilities were found from 2000 to 2006, for youth or adult community sports teams, classes, or open gym.
These national data indicate a lack of progress from 2000 and 2006 toward increasing the proportion of the nation's public and private schools that provide access to their physical activity facilities for all persons outside of normal school hours.
Jennifer McConnell-Nzunga, Katie A. Weatherson, Louise Masse, Valerie Carson, Guy Faulkner, Erica Lau, Heather McKay, Viviene Temple, Luke Wolfenden, and Patti J. Naylor
PA behaviours. 3 Child care settings can provide opportunities for PA through their physical environments, policies, and practices 4 and their broad reach. In 2011, 62% of Canadian parents reported using some type of child care for their 3-year-old children, 64% for 4-year-old children, and 52% for