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Academic Bullying: Taking the Hallway Chats to the Level of Formalized Policy

Karen S. Meaney and Sonya L. Armstrong

our institution, and this work is ultimately intended to inform our arguments for policy development at the local level. To undertake this content analysis, we began by going to each institution’s website and searching for the keywords bullying and policy on that site. When policy language was

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Chapter 2: Reversing Policy Neglect in U.S. Physical Education: A Policy-Focused Primer

Hans van der Mars, Hal A. Lawson, Murray Mitchell, and Phillip Ward

capacity among all those engaged in K–12, PETE, and D-PETE programs to become active policy actors follow. These strategies and others they implicate are founded on a key assumption. Absent policy literacy and policy development capacity, school programs will not achieve their grand potential. Put another

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Critical Policy Analysis: The Illustrative Case of New Zealand Sport Policy Development

Laurence Chalip

Policy analytic methods derived from hermeneutics and critical theory are particularly useful for the analysis of sport policy discourse. A key objective of such methods is to provide analyses with the potential to empower stakeholders by locating key attributions and legitimations that direct and constrain policy options. This concern for empowerment links policy analysis to recent arguments for the utility of participatory action research in sport management. Techniques of critical policy analysis provide a useful adjunct tool because they furnish interpretations and critiques that can be used by undervalued or excluded stakeholders to challenge debilitating policy assumptions. Two key Procedures for critical interpretation are illustrated via application to the discourse guiding the formulation of New Zealand's sport policies. Legitimation critique exposes key reasons why athletes were never pivotal to policy deliberations, and why subsequent policy outcomes fail to address key athlete concerns. Attribution critique illumines the presuppositions that caused the development of sport infrastructure or sport programs to be excluded from the policy focus. It is argued that policy design failures of this kind can be averted via the application of critical policy analysis during policy design.

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Proceed With Caution: A Teaching Case Study of Youth Sport Specialization

Makenzie A. Schoeff, Katie R. Morey, James E. Johnson, Anya T. Eicher, and Lawrence W. Judge

organizational theory, policy development, youth sport, and recreational programming. Both undergraduate and graduate students can benefit from the case. Additional audiences include sport management professionals, coaches, and volunteers who work with youth athletes. Learning Objectives The purpose of this case

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Toward Whole-of-System Action to Promote Physical Activity: A Cross-Sectoral Analysis of Physical Activity Policy in Australia

Tracy Nau, Karen Lee, Ben J. Smith, William Bellew, Lindsey Reece, Peter Gelius, Harry Rutter, and Adrian Bauman

. The engagement of diverse sectors (such as health, sport, transport, and planning) has been identified as essential to delivering the broad scope of policy action required to address the multiple determinants of physical activity (PA). 11 Although such a broad field for policy development offers

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The GoPA! Second Set of Country Cards Informing Decision Making for a Silent Pandemic

Andrea Ramírez Varela and Michael Pratt

, program development, and policymaking to increase physical activity levels. 2 , 5 , 6 Findings from the first GoPA! Country Cards showed an unequal distribution of physical activity surveillance, research productivity, and policy development and implementation around the world. 2 Regular global

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Promotion of Physical Activity in the European Region: Content Analysis of 27 National Policy Documents

Signe B. Daugbjerg, Sonja Kahlmeier, Francesca Racioppi, Eva Martin-Diener, Brian Martin, Pekka Oja, and Fiona Bull


Over the past years there has been increasing interest in physical activity promotion and the development of appropriate policy. So far, there has been no comprehensive overview of the activities taking place in Europe in this area of public health policy.


Using different search methods, 49 national policy documents on physical activity promotion were identified. An analysis grid covering key features was developed for the analysis of the 27 documents published in English.


Analysis showed that many general recommendations for policy developments are being followed, for example: general goals were formulated, an implementation plan was included, a timeframe and a responsible body for the implementation was often specified. However, limited evidence for intersectoral collaboration was found. Quantified goals for physical activity were the exception. Population groups most in need such as people with low levels of physical activity were rarely specifically targeted. Most policies emphasized the importance of an evaluation. However, only about half of them indicated a related intention or requirement.


In recent years there has been a noticeable development of national policy documents on physical activity promotion. Following principles for policy development more closely could increase the effectiveness of their preparation and implementation further.

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Developing a Community Sport Organization’s Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Policy

Megan C. Piché, Erik L. Lachance, and Shannon Kerwin

This teaching case study tasks students with creating a diversity, equity, and inclusion policy. The teaching case study’s context is a fictional community sport organization (CSO; i.e., Niagara Falls Thundering River Volleyball Club) located in the Niagara Region in Ontario, Canada. To develop such a policy, students learn about the emerging pressures and market conditions surrounding the fictional CSO. Students are also made aware of key policy principles as well as management by values to consider ethical standards within diversity, equity, and inclusion. Finally, students are introduced to diversity, equity, and inclusion policies within the Canadian sport system to inform their policy development process for the purposes of this teaching case study.

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Performance Leadership and Management in Elite Sport: A Black and White Issue or Different Shades of Grey?

Rachel Arnold, David Fletcher, and Jennifer A. Hobson

In this study, the authors interviewed Olympic athletes about their perceptions of their leaders and managers, with a particular focus on perceptions of negatively valenced and socially undesirable characteristics and their effects. The results highlight five main dark characteristics: self-focused, haughty self-belief, inauthentic, manipulative, and success-obsessed. The findings also indicate negative effects of such characteristics (viz., performance and career threats, affected confidence, pressure and anxiety, and a lack of support) and positive effects of such characteristics (viz., motivation, resilience and coping skills, opportunities, and learning and awareness). Hence, it appears that not only are leaders and managers’ personalities “different shades of grey” but also the effects they have are too. The findings are discussed in relation to previous pertinent research, and with regard to their implications for policy development and future research.

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Power, Policy, and Political Priorities: Elite Sport Development in Canada and the United Kingdom

Mick Green

This article analyzes government and quasigovernmental agencies’ use of “planning dictates” in relationships with national sporting organizations (NSOs) in Canada and national governing bodies (NGBs) of sport in the United Kingdom (UK). Attention is drawn to the asymmetries of power contouring elite sport policy developments in both countries that, though unobservable in an empirical sense, nonetheless warrant investigation. The analysis draws on semistructured, in-depth interviews with key personnel in three Canadian NSOs and three UK NGBs in swimming, athletics, and sailing; senior officials at Sport Canada and UK Sport; and sport-policy analysts and academics. Although Canadian NSOs have been subject to such planning dictates for the past 20 to 30 years, the requirement for UK NGBs to comply in this way have only emerged since the mid-1990s. Accordingly, the article concludes with suggestions for further research in the UK.