Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 82 items for :

  • "population study" x
Clear All
Restricted access

Katja Borodulin, Timo Lakka, Tiina Laatikainen, Raija Laukkanen, Hannu Kinnunen and Pekka Jousilahti

Background:

In large population studies, comparisons of physical activity, self-rated fitness, and measured aerobic fitness are seldom reported. Measuring aerobic fitness is time-consuming and expensive, thus alternative methods are needed.

Objectives:

To investigate the recently established Polar Fitness Test (PFT) as a method to predict maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, a measure of maximal aerobic power), to assess distribution of predicted VO2max by gender and age, and to compare predictions to self-reported leisure time physical activity and self-rated fitness level in a large Finnish population sample.

Methods:

The study population comprised 5979 men and women aged 25 to 74 years who participated in the National FINRISK Study. Subjects filled in standardized questionnaires assessing self-rated fitness level and total, conditioning, commuting, and non-conditioning leisure time physical activity. The PFT was performed by a trained nurse at the study site and was based on resting heart rate measurements, gender, age, height, weight, and self-reported physical activity. Healthy individuals and those with a self-reported cardiovascular disease were analyzed separately.

Results:

The mean predicted VO2max was 38.1 and 35.1 ml/kg/min in healthy men and women, respectively. In both genders, predicted VO2max declined significantly by age. Individuals with cardiovascular disease had lower VO2max predictions than healthy persons. Healthy men reported total leisure time physical activity slightly less than healthy women. Self-rated fitness level and conditioning and commuting leisure time physical activity were independently associated with predicted VO2max, while no correlation between non-conditioning leisure time physical activity and predicted aerobic fitness was found.

Conclusion:

PFT was a feasible method to predict aerobic fitness in a large population study and was related both to self-rated fitness and self-reported physical activity. Aerobic fitness was associated with conditioning and commuting physical activity, but not with non-conditioning physical activity.

Restricted access

Michael Annear, Tetsuhiro Kidokoro and Yasuo Shimizu

poor record of inspiring host populations to undertake sustainably higher levels of PA ( Annear, Shimizu, & Kidokoro, 2019 ). For example, population studies using repeated surveys from Australia (Sydney 2000) and the United Kingdom (London 2012) reported no sustained PA increase among representative

Restricted access

Fátima Ramalho, Filomena Carnide, Rita Santos-Rocha, Helô-Isa André, Vera Moniz-Pereira, Maria L. Machado and António P. Veloso

Functional fitness (FF) and gait ability in older populations have been associated with increased survival rates, fall prevention, and quality of life. One possible intervention for the improvement of FF is well-structured exercise programs. However, there are inconsistent findings regarding the effects of exercise interventions in the maintenance of gait parameters. The aim of this protocol is to develop a community-based exercise intervention targeting an older population. The intervention aim is the improvement of gait parameters and FF. A control trial with follow-up will be performed. The primary outcome variables will be plantar pressure gait parameters. The secondary outcome variables will be aerobic endurance, lower limb strength, agility, and balance. These variables will be recorded at baseline and after 12, 24, and 36 weeks, in the intervention and control groups. If effective, this protocol can be used by exercise professionals in improving community exercise programs.

Restricted access

Aoife O’Neill, Kieran Dowd, Clodagh O’Gorman, Ailish Hannigan, Cathal Walsh and Helen Purtill

Purpose:

Profiling activity behaviors in young children is important to understand changes in weight status over time. The purpose of this study is to identify activity profiles from self- and parental-reported Physical Activity (PA) and Sedentary Behavior (SB) variables by gender, and determine if the identified profiles are predictive of weight change from age 9–13 years.

Methods:

Cluster analysis was used to generate activity profiles for the National Longitudinal Study of 8570 9-year-old children (Growing Up in Ireland).

Results:

5.4% of boys were found to be obese. Four cohesive activity profiles were identified for boys, with 7.3% of boys in the least active group identified as obese compared with 4.1% in the most active group. The odds of a normal weight 9-year-old boy in the least active profile becoming overweight or obese at age 13 were over twice those in most active profile (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.9, 3.5). No coherent activity profiles were identified for girls.

Conclusions:

This study suggests that self- and parental-reported data can identify meaningful activity profiles for boys, which are predictive of weight changes over time. Future research should consider potential gender differences in self- and parental-reported PA and SB variables.

Restricted access

Katrina D. DuBose, Cheryl L. Addy, Barbara E. Ainsworth, Gregory A. Hand and J. Larry Durstine

Background:

This study was performed to determine the relationship between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and the metabolic syndrome (MS) in 16,681 adults (43 ± 0.44 y) enrolled in NHANES III.

Methods:

LTPA was classified as regularly active ( 5 d/wk moderate and/or 3 d/wk vigorous), irregularly active (some LTPA), or inactive (no LTPA). The MS was positive with three or more conditions: 1) abdominal obesity, 2) low HDL-C, 3) hypertriglyceridemia, 4) elevated blood pressure, or 5) elevated glucose. Logistic regression examined the relationship between LTPA and the MS, adjusting for age, race, smoking status, and educational attainment stratified by gender.

Results:

In men only, irregular activity and inactivity was related to an increase in the MS (irregular: OR = 1.52 95% CI 1.11, 1.23; inactive: OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.18, 1.98; test for trend P = 0.004). Inactivity increased the odds for abdominal obesity (P < 0.05).

Conclusions:

LTPA levels might influence the development of MS and abdominal obesity.

Restricted access

Timo Suutama and Isto Ruoppila

Two follow-up studies were designed to analyze die cross-seciional and longitudinal associations between cognitive functioning and physical activity among two cohorts of elderly people. At baseline, over 90% of the 75- and 80-year-old populations were interviewed at home and almost 80% participated in the laboratory examinations. Cognitive functioning was assessed by psychometric tests and reaction time tasks, and physical activity was assessed by a subjective self-assessment as well as by objectively measured maximal walking speed. Among both cohorts, the decline over the 5-year period in cognitive functioning as well as in physical activity was generally small but statistically significant. The test-retest correlations were higher for the cognitive functioning scores than for the physical activity variables. The associations between cognitive functioning and physical activity were inconsistent and showed some differences between men and women.

Restricted access

Louise L. Hardy, Ding Ding, Louisa R. Peralta, Seema Mihrshahi and Dafna Merom

Background: To examine the associations between school-age children’s sedentary behavior, screen time, and 3 physical activity attributes: muscular strength, cardiorespiratory endurance (CRE), and fundamental movement skills. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of 2734 children in years 2 and 4 and 3671 adolescents in years 6, 8, and 10. Total sitting time, 6 screen time behaviors, and physical activity were measured by self-report. Muscular strength was assessed by standing broad jump; CRE by 20-m shuttle run test; and fundamental movement skills by process-oriented checklists. Associations between incremental sitting and screen time (in hours) and meeting the healthy zone of physical activity attributes were examined using logistic regression. Results: After adjusting for covariates and physical activity, children had lower odds of achieving the healthy zone for muscular strength and CRE for each hour of week (but not weekend) screen time. For adolescents, each hour of screen time per day was associated with lower odds of achieving the healthy fitness zone for CRE, locomotor skills, and overall healthy zone, and each hour of weekend screen time was associated with lower odds of achieving the healthy zone for most attributes and overall healthy zone. The associations were slightly stronger among adolescent girls than boys. The findings were similar for total sitting time. Conclusions: Screen time was associated with a lower likelihood to achieve healthy zones of physical activity attributes, and the effect was more consistent and slightly stronger among adolescents than children. This may suggest that the negative effects of screen time are incremental, emerging during adolescence.

Restricted access

Taina Rantanen, Pertti Era, Markku Kauppinen and Eino Heikkinen

This study analyzes the associations of socioeconomic status (SES), health, and physical activity with maximal isometric strength in 75-year-old men (n = 104) and women (n = 191). Maximal isometric strength was measured with dynamometers; the forces were adjusted using body weight. The maximal forces for women varied from 66% (trunk flexion) to 73% (knee extension) of those of the men. SES was not associated with muscle force. For men the trunk forces and elbow flexion force correlated negatively with the number of chronic diseases, index of musculoskeletal pain, and self-rated health. For women all the strength test results correlated with self-rated health; the other health indicators showed significant correlation with trunk extension force only. For both sexes the physically more active exhibited greater strength. The index of musculoskeletal symptoms explained the variance on trunk force factor in both sexes. It was concluded that a higher level of everyday physical activity and good values in the state-of-health indicators were the most important variables explaining greater strength among the elderly.

Restricted access

Ellen Herman and Paul Retish

Vision therapy is a field of optometry dedicated to the belief that eyesight and certain visual functions can be improved. Currently, due to lack of conclusive research, there is dissention regarding the validity of this intervention technique. This paper examines the rationale that supports and/or refutes vision therapy and ways in which this intervention has been used, and makes recommendations for future research, particularly directed toward special populations. Studies have shown there are many problems related to visual efficiency and visual processing for special populations. Vision therapy is discussed as a potential resource for designing developmental physical education programs for special populations.

Restricted access

Janice O’Connor, Elizabeth J. Ball, Kate S. Steinbeck, Peter S.W. Davies, Connie Wishart, Kevin J. Gaskin and Louise A. Baur

The aim of this study of 56 children aged 6-9 years was to identify measures of physical activity that could be used in either clinical or population studies. Comparisons were made between four measures of physical activity: a three day parent-reported activity diary, a parent-reported physical activity questionnaire, the Tritrac-R3D™ accelerometer (worn three days) and physical activity energy expenditure calculated over 10 days by the doubly labeled water (DLW) technique. The strongest correlation between methods was for the diary and Tritrac-R3D™ during the two hour after-school period (1530-1730 hours) (r = 0.75, P < 0.0001). Activity level in this after-school period was positively correlated with average activity level over three days for both Tritrac-R3D™ (r = 0.53, P < 0.01) and diary (r = 0.54, P < 0.0001). No associations were found between measures of activity from DLW and activity measures from the Tritrac-R3D™, diary or questionnaire. These results suggest that the two hour after-school period is of high interest for future population studies of physical activity in school-age children.