, relevance, and prospects for interdisciplinary collaboration ( Chalip, 2006 ; Chalip et al., 2010 ; Costa, 2005 ; Doherty, 2012 ). For instance, the role sport may have in promoting the health of the population, or population health , has been widely examined by sport management scholars ( Berg et
“Sport is Double-Edged”: A Delphi Study of Spectator Sport and Population Health
Brennan K. Berg, Yuhei Inoue, Matthew T. Bowers, and Packianathan Chelladurai
Evaluating the Population Health Impact of Physical Activity Interventions in Primary Care—Are We Asking the Right Questions?
Elizabeth G. Eakin, Ben J. Smith, and Adrian E. Bauman
This article evaluates the extent to which the literature on primary care-based physical activity interventions informs the translation of research into practice and identifies priorities for future research.
Relevant databases were searched for: (1) descriptive studies of physician barriers to physical activity counseling (n = 8), and (2) reviews of the literature on primary care-based physical activity intervention studies (n = 9). The RE-AIM framework was used to guide the evaluation.
Lack of time, limited patient receptiveness, lack of remuneration, and limited counseling skills are the predominant barriers to physical activity counselling. Issues of internal validity (i.e., effectiveness and implementation) have received much more attention in the literature than have issues of external validity (i.e., reach and adoption).
The research agenda for primary care-based physical activity interventions needs greater attention to the feasibility of adoption by busy primary care staff, generalizability, and dissemination.
Spectator Sport and Population Health: A Scoping Study
Yuhei Inoue, Brennan K. Berg, and Packianathan Chelladurai
This article examines the current state of research regarding the effect of spectator sport on population health. We conducted a scoping study that involved a comprehensive search of published and gray literature between 1990 and 2014, and identified 135 studies empirically examining the effect of spectator sport on population health. A frequency analysis shows that there is a paucity of studies on this topic published in sport management journals. A thematic analysis further reveals that the reviewed studies can be classified into nine research themes depicting the relationships among certain categories of spectator sport and population health. Based on this scoping study, we develop a framework and identify several gaps in the literature that should be addressed to advance our understanding of the relationship between spectator sport and population health.
A Protocol for a Local Community Monitoring and Feedback System for Physical Activity in Organized Group Settings for Children
Ann M. Essay, Michaela A. Schenkelberg, Mary J. Von Seggern, Marisa S. Rosen, Chelsey R. Schlechter, Richard R. Rosenkranz, and David A. Dzewaltowski
individuals interact, and for children, they include adult-led organized group settings such as classrooms, youth club groups, after-school programs, and youth sport teams. Community population health outcomes are dependent upon the interactions within behavior setting environments, while individual outcomes
Physical Activity and Public Health: Four Decades of Progress
Sarah K. Keadle, Eduardo E. Bustamante, and Matthew P. Buman
between PA and a disease outcome) and surveillance, the monitoring of population health trends; (b) health promotion and policy development, such as interventions to improve and promote activity, communication strategies to inform and educate, and the implementation of policies, plans, laws, and other
Physical Activity Matters: Associations Among Body Mass Index, Physical Activity, and Health-Related Quality of Life Trajectories Over 10 Years
David Feeny, Rochelle Garner, Julie Bernier, Amanda Thompson, Bentson H. McFarland, Nathalie Huguet, Mark S. Kaplan, Nancy A. Ross, and Chris M. Blanchard
The objective of this study was to assess the associations among body mass index (BMI), leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and health-related quality of life (HRQL) trajectories among adults.
Self-reported data were drawn from the Canadian National Population Health Survey, with respondents being interviewed every 2 years between 1996–97 and 2006–07. Using growth curve modeling, HRQL trajectories for individuals aged 18 and over were associated with measures of BMI and LTPA. Growth models were constructed separately for males and females.
Findings suggested that, for males, BMI categories had little impact on baseline HRQL, and no impact on the rate of change in HRQL. Among women, higher BMI categories were associated with significantly lower baseline HRQL. However, BMI had no impact on the rate of change of HRQL. Conversely, for both men and women and regardless of BMI category, LTPA had significant impacts on baseline HRQL, as well as the rate of change in HRQL. Individuals who were inactive or sedentary had much steeper declines in HRQL as they aged, as compared with individuals who were active in their leisure time.
The results underscore the importance of LTPA in shaping trajectories of HRQL.
Towards a Social Epidemiological Perspective on Physical Activity and Health: The Aims, Design, and Methods of the Physical Activity Longitudinal Study (PALS)
Cora Lynn Craig, Lise Gauvin, Sue Cragg, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Thomas Stephens, Storm J. Russell, Lloyd Bentz, and Louise Potvin
The health benefits of physical activity are substantial; however, the lifetime and environmental determinants of sedentary living are poorly understood. The purpose of this article is to outline the conceptual background and methods of the Physical Activity Longitudinal Study (PALS), a follow-up study of a population- and place-based cohort. A secondary purpose is to report on the success of follow-up procedures.
A rationale for conducting a 20-y follow-up of a nationally representative population- and place-based cohort is developed based on the extant literature dealing with socio-environmental determinants of health and on current advancements in thinking about the determinants of involvement in physical activity. Then, methods of the 2002-04 PALS (n = 2511, nonresponse = 29.8%) that began with the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey are described. Descriptive data pertaining to the success of follow-up procedures are outlined.
There is general consensus around the relevance of examining lifetime and environmental determinants of physical activity involvement. Longitudinal data represent one source of information for disentangling the relative importance of these determinants. Examination of PALS follow-up data show that there was no selection bias for key individual- (physical activity, other lifestyle, health) and area-level (median income, housing) variables, although fewer respondents than nonrespondents smoked or were underweight at baseline. Some demographic groups were under- or over-represented among the eligible cohort, but not among participants.
The social epidemiological perspective emerging from PALS should help policymakers and public health practitioners make strides in changing socio-environmental factors to curb sedentary lifestyles and promote population health.
Understanding Policies and Physical Activity: Frontiers of Knowledge to Improve Population Health
Amy Eyler, Ross Brownson, Tom Schmid, and Michael Pratt
With increasing evidence of the detrimental effects of physical inactivity, there is interest in enhancing research on policies that may influence physical activity in communities. Given the potential policy impact, a framework that organized and conceptualized policy interventions and priorities for public health efforts to promote physical activity was developed. In addition, the Physical Activity Policy Research Network (PAPRN) was formed as a way to operationalize the contents of the framework. Recommendations for future work in this area include enhancing transdisciplinary collaborations, raising the priority of policy evaluation, studying policies at all levels, and emphasizing dissemination of findings.
Trends in Self-Reported Sitting Time by Physical Activity Levels Among US Adults, NHANES 2007/2008–2017/2018
Emily N. Ussery, Geoffrey P. Whitfield, Janet E. Fulton, Deborah A. Galuska, Charles E. Matthews, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, and Susan A. Carlson
Background: High levels of sedentary behavior and physical inactivity increase the risk of premature mortality and several chronic diseases. Monitoring national trends and correlates of sedentary behavior and physical inactivity can help identify patterns of risk in the population over time. Methods: The authors used self-reported data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2007/2008–2017/2018) to estimate trends in US adults’ mean daily sitting time, overall, and stratified by levels of leisure-time and multidomain physical activity, and in the joint prevalence of high sitting time (>8 h/d) and physical inactivity. Trends were tested using orthogonal polynomial contrasts. Results: Overall, mean daily sitting time increased by 19 minutes from 2007/2008 (332 min/d) to 2017/2018 (351 min/d) (P linear < .05; P quadratic < .05). The highest point estimate occurred in 2013/2014 (426 min/d), with a decreasing trend observed after this point (P linear < .05). Similar trends were observed across physical activity levels and domains, with one exception: an overall linear increase was not observed among sufficiently active adults. The mean daily sitting time was lowest among highly active adults compared with less active adults when using the multidomain physical activity measure. Conclusions: Sitting time among adults increased over the study period but decreased in recent years.
Healthy Campus 2010: Physical Activity Trends and the Role Information Provision
Diane E. Mack, Philip M. Wilson, Virginia Lightheart, Kristin Oster, and Katie E. Gunnell
The primary purpose of this investigation was to examine the frequency and type of self-reported physical activity behavior in postsecondary students with reference to Healthy Campus 2010 objectives. The secondary purpose was to explore the role of information provision in terms of promoting physical activity behavior in postsecondary students.
Postsecondary students were assessed (N = 127360). Employing a trend survey design, the frequency and type of physical activity behavior was assessed along with physical activity/fitness information provision across a five year period between 2000 to 2004.
In 2004, respondents meeting Healthy Campus 2010 objectives for self-reported moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was 42.20% (95% CI = 41.75 to 42.65) and 48.60% (95% CI = 48.14 to 49.06) for strength (STRENGTH) training behavior. Progress quotients demonstrated that 12.93% and 7.87% of target objective for MVPA and STRENGTH respectively had been achieved from baseline. Those who received information reported engaging in more frequent physical activity behavior compared with those who did not (P < .001).
Results suggest the need for continued commitment to increasing physical activity behavior. The provision of physical activity/fitness information may be one mechanism through which this can be achieved.