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Comparison of a Subjective and an Objective Measure of Physical Activity in a Population Sample

Maria Hagstromer, Barbara E. Ainsworth, Pekka Oja, and Michael Sjostrom

Background:

The aim of this study was to compare physical activity components in the long, self-administrated version of IPAQ with an accelerometer in a population sample.

Methods:

In total 980 subjects (18-65 years) wore an accelerometer (Actigraph) for 7 consecutive days and thereafter filled in the IPAQ. Measures of total physical activity, time spent in moderate and in vigorous activity as well as time spent sitting as assessed by the IPAQ and the Actigraph were compared.

Results:

The results showed significant low to moderate correlations (Rs = 0.07−0.36) between the 2 instruments and significantly (P < .001) higher values for sitting and vigorous intensity physical activity from the IPAQ compared with the Actigraph. The higher the values reported by the IPAQ the bigger differences were seen between the instruments. Comparison between the tertiles of total physical activity by the 2 instruments showed significant overall association with consistent agreement in the low and the high tertiles.

Conclusion:

The long form of IPAQ is a valid measure of physical activity in population research. However, the IPAQ likely overestimates actual physical activity as shown by its limited ability to classify adults into low and high categories of physical activity based on accelerometer data.

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Determinants of Cardiorespiratory Fitness in a Population Sample of Girls and Boys Aged 6 to 8 Years

Niina Lintu, Kai Savonen, Anna Viitasalo, Tuomo Tompuri, Jussi Paananen, Mika P. Tarvainen, and Timo Lakka

Background:

There are few studies on determinants of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) among girls and boys separately in population samples of children.

Methods:

We therefore investigated the determinants of CRF, assessed by maximal workload per height using allometric scaling, in a population sample of 162 girls and 177 boys aged 6 to 8 years. We used automated bootstrap feature selection and linear regression models.

Results:

The strongest determinants of CRF among girls were maximal heart rate (HR; standardized regression coefficient [β] = 0.31, P < .001), unsupervised physical activity (β = 0.29, P < .001), lean body mass (β = 0.23, P = .001), and errors in static balance test (β = –0.16, P = .02), accounting altogether for 25.7% of variation in CRF. In boys, unsupervised physical activity (β = 0.24, P < .001), resting HR (β = –0.25, P < .001), hand grip strength (β = 0.21, P = .001), errors in static balance test (β = –0.16, P = .01), organized football (β = 0.16, P = .01), and unsupervised trampoline jumping (β = 0.14, P = .04) were the strongest determinants of CRF, accounting altogether for 29.7% of variation in CRF.

Conclusions:

These findings suggest that unsupervised physical activity is sufficient in improving CRF in both sexes. Furthermore, larger muscle mass and better balance are associated with higher CRF that has to be taken into account when assessing CRF using maximal cycle ergometer exercise test among children.

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Relationship Between Regular Walking, Physical Activity, and Health-Related Quality of Life

Rachel E. Blacklock, Ryan E. Rhodes, and Shane G. Brown

Background:

The current physical activity (PA) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) literature warrants further investigation with general population samples. The exploratory-focused purpose of this study was to compare total PA-HRQoL and walking-HRQoL relations, include a measure of general happiness, and to evaluate potential activity-HRQoL demographic moderators.

Methods:

A random sample of 351 adults completed an adapted Godin Leisure Time Questionnaire, the SF-36, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale.

Results:

Partial correlations revealed small-to-moderate associations between walking/total PA and general health, vitality, and social functioning after controlling for key demographics (P < 0.05). A dependent t-test determined walking and PA as equally related to vitality and social functioning. Multiple regression revealed annual income as a moderator of the total PA/walking-social functioning relationship [F(3,315) = 9.71 and F(3,316) = 12.03, P < 0.01, respectively].

Conclusions:

HRQoL may be considered with walking interventions and annual income. The contribution of PA to overall happiness appears to be minor.

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Examination of Accelerometer Reactivity Among a Population Sample of Children, Adolescents, and Adults

Robert E. Davis and Paul D. Loprinzi

Objectives:

To examine whether accelerometer-measured physical activity–based reactivity was present in a nationally representative sample of U.S. children (6–11 yrs), adolescents (12–17 yrs), and adults (≥20 yrs).

Methods:

Data from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N = 674, 6–85 yrs) were used. Physical activity (PA) was assessed using the ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer, with PA assessed over 7 days of monitoring. Two PA metrics were assessed, including activity counts per day (CPD) and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA. Evidence of reactivity was defined as a statistically significantly change in either of these 2 PA metrics from day 1 of monitoring to days 2 or 3, with day 1 of monitoring being a Monday.

Results:

Suggestion of reactivity was observed only for the adult population where CPD from days 2 and 3 (297,140.6 ± 7920.3 and 295,812.9 ± 8364.9), respectively, differed significantly from day 1 (309,611.5 ± 9134.9) over the monitoring period (4.0% to 4.5% change). The analysis was conducted 2 additional times with differing start days (Tuesday and Wednesday), and this approach failed to demonstrated a reactive presence.

Conclusion:

In this national sample of U.S. children, adolescents and adults, we did not observe sufficient evidence of accelerometer reactivity.

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Physical Activity Among Urban-Living Middle-Aged and Older Japanese During the Build-Up to the Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games: A Population Study

Michael Annear, Tetsuhiro Kidokoro, and Yasuo Shimizu

ceremony. The combined focus on aging cohorts and environmental influences on activity during the Olympic build-up is a novel approach that has not previously been undertaken within host nations. Methods Design and Sampling Frame Population sampling with age and gender stratification was employed in

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Agreement of Clinical Judgments of Endfeel between 2 Sample Populations

Wendy L. Hurley

Context:

The agreement of clinical judgments of endfeel between certified athletic trainers and orthopedic surgeons is not known.

Objectives:

To examine agreement of clinical judgments of endfeel between sample populations and explore the influence of clinician technique on sensitivity for determining ACL injury when performing an isolated examination procedure.

Design:

Randomized, blinded, controlled clinical trials.

Setting:

Laboratory.

Subjects:

1 orthopedic surgeon, 22 certified athletic trainers, and 12 model patients.

Main Outcome Measures:

Kappa coefficients were calculated to determine the agreement of clinical judgments of endfeel between the 2 populations sampled. Lachman-test sensitivity was measured using true positive and false negative interpretations.

Results:

Concurrence was poor for clinical judgments of endfeel. Sensitivity varied according to clinician technique.

Conclusion:

Agreement between the 2 populations sampled was influenced by the examiners’ diagnostic skills and their capacity to properly perform and interpret the Lachman test.

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Correlates of Low Physical Activity Levels in Aging Men and Women: The DR’s EXTRA Study (ISRCTN45977199)

L. Hakola, M. Hassinen, P. Komulainen, T.A. Lakka, K. Savonen, and R. Rauramaa

Recognizing correlates of low physical activity (PA) can help in targeting PA interventions for individuals who would benefit most from increasing their PA. We studied the associations of demographic, social, health, and lifestyle factors with low PA by sex in a population sample of 1,303 Finnish individuals aged 57–78 years. We defined low PA as no moderate or vigorous leisure-time PA reported in an interview. Altogether, 39% of men and 48% of women reported low PA. Satisfactory or poor perceived health and high BMI were independently associated with low PA in both sexes. In men, factors such as age, being divorced or separated, still working, having a weak social network, poor diet, and a health professional’s suggestion to increase PA were associated with low PA. In women, cardiovascular disease and depressive symptoms were associated with low PA. These results can be applied in targeting PA interventions.

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Gender, Age, and Educational-Attainment Differences in Australian Adults’ Participation in Vigorous Sporting and Fitness Activities

Eva Leslie, Ester Cerin, Christopher J. Gore, Alexis St. George, Adrian Bauman, and Neville Owen

Background:

Participation in regular vigorous physical activity could confer health benefits additional to those derived from moderate-intensity physical activities that are currently the focus of public health strategies.

Methods:

Sociodemographic differences in reported participation in vigorous sporting and fitness activities over the past 2 weeks were examined using cross-sectional data from an Australian urban population sample.

Results:

Participation at least once in any form of vigorous physical activity and regular participation (six or more sessions) both decreased across successive age groups and from high to low levels of education. The most frequently reported types of vigorous physical activity were cycling (13.3%), jogging (10.1%), swimming (8.4%) for men; and swimming (8.9%), cycling (8.8%) and aerobics (8.6%) for women.

Conclusion:

Rates of regular participation in vigorous activities were low. Interventions might focus on ways to encourage younger adults to engage more regularly in these activities and to maintain participation through the lifespan.

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Association of Age and Education With Different Types of Leisure-Time Physical Activity Among 4437 Finnish Adults

Katja Borodulin, Tiina Laatikainen, Marjaana Lahti-Koski, Pekka Jousilahti, and Timo A. Lakka

Background:

The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of age and education with types of leisure-time physical activity in a population sample of Finnish adults.

Methods:

The sample, part of the National FINRISK Study, comprised 1940 men and 2497 women age 25 to 64 years. Self-reported questionnaires were used to collect data on education and leisure-time physical activity. Overall leisure-time physical activity was further divided into conditioning and daily physical activity.

Results:

In men and women, age had an inverse association with conditioning physical activity but not with daily and overall leisure activity. Strong direct associations were found between education and conditioning and overall leisure activity.

Conclusions:

All age groups report fairly similar levels of overall and daily levels of leisure-time physical activity, but the levels differ across educational groups. In health promotion, more emphasis should be targeted to the population groups with lower education.

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Do Physical Activity Beliefs Differ by Age and Gender?

Ryan E. Rhodes, Chris M. Blanchard, and Rachel E. Blacklock

Age and gender are consistently related to physical activity (PA), yet theoretical explanation for these associations is scant. The present study compared the mean values and correlations of a population sample, divided by gender and age group, with respect to theory of planned behavior beliefs (behavioral, normative, and control) and PA. Participants were a sample (N = 6,739) of adults (M age = 49.65, SD = 16.04) who completed measures of social and health demographics, theory of planned behavior beliefs, and self-reported PA. Mean analyses identi-fed greater perceived control over PA for seniors than for young and middle-aged adults (η2 > .025). Belief–behavior correlations, however, were not different across age and gender in 24 of 26 tests (q < .19). Thus, PA beliefs are invariant across age and gender with the exception of mean levels of perceived control, which are lower among younger adults than older adults. Factors such as early parenthood and career demands were considered the likely reasons for differences. Overall, the evidence suggests that adapting theoretical models for specific age groups or based on gender may not be necessary.