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Amirhossein K. Vafadar, Julie N. Côté and Philippe S. Archambault

The purpose of this study was to estimate the extent to which muscle fatigue can impact on the position sense in the upper limb. Twelve healthy volunteers were asked to do a reaching task while grasping a wooden block and match the block’s position with a corresponding target displayed on a flat screen, without vision. Following that, subjects performed resistive exercises with Thera-band strips until fatigue was induced and then the position sense task was repeated. A significant change in the endpoint position was observed after fatigue, in the up/down direction (p ≤ .001). The variability of endpoint positions in up/down direction was also significantly increased after fatigue (p ≤.03). There was no significant change in endpoint orientation but there was a significant fatigue × orientation effect on endpoint rotational variability. In a follow-up experiment, a group of subjects repeated the same protocol, but with a period of quiet rest between the two position sense tasks. In that group, there were no differences in endpoint position, orientation or variability. Muscle fatigue is an important factor that should be taken into consideration during the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries as well as athletic training.

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John Andrew Badagliacco and Andrew Karduna

have focused on a comparison between pitching and nonpitching shoulders in baseball players. Compared with nonthrowing arms in a passive protocol, deficits were found in the throwing shoulder during a threshold detection task, 20 a joint position sense (JPS) task, 22 and a latent muscle reaction test

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Hiroshi Takasaki, Yu Okubo and Shun Okuyama

Proprioceptive deficits including impaired joint position sense (JPS) are considered to be contributing to impaired neuromuscular control, resulting in functional instability and repetitive injury. 1 Furthermore, impaired JPS is associated with impaired muscle performance, 2 and this combination

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Takuma Hoshiba, Hiroki Nakata, Yasuaki Saho, Kazuyuki Kanosue and Toru Fukubayashi

clinical and research studies. 10 The position-reproducing task has acceptable reliability for measuring joint position sense over the knee and consists of having subjects reproduce a reference knee position, with the reference position presented first. 11 , 12 However, this conventional task may not be

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Natalia Romero-Franco, Juan Antonio Montaño-Munuera, Juan Carlos Fernández-Domínguez and Pedro Jiménez-Reyes

These conditions, in which proprioception supports the correct motor control, may facilitate better sports movement 1 or fewer risks of injury. 3 Joint position sense (JPS) is a subcomponent of proprioception that informs about the accuracy and precision of the movement and its relationship with

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Muammer Altun

literature suggests that there is a lack of consistent performance-based criteria for the decision of the return to sport. 2 – 4 Therefore, the examination of joint position sense (JPS) is of both practical and theoretical importance for the decision to return to sport. Proprioception plays a crucial role

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Carly May Green, Paul Comfort and Lee Herrington


A reduction in joint position sense (JPS) is sometimes a consequence of shoulder injury that may adversely affect the ability to maintain dynamic joint stability.


To compare shoulder JPS between previously injured and noninjured judokas.


Cohort study.


Twenty-nine noninjured subjects (10.93 ± 3.45 years) and eleven injured subjects (15.09 ± 3.39 years).

Main Outcome Measures:

JPS was tested at 45° and 80°of shoulder external rotation at 90° of abduction.


No signifcant difference in JPS was found between previously injured and noninjured judokas at either joint position.


Despite evidence that JPS acuity decreases following shoulder injury, this study did not demonstrate a difference in average error between previously injured and noninjured judokas. Uncontrolled confounding factors, such as age and time since injury, may have affected the results. Sport-specifc shoulder joint loading patterns may also be an important factor that affects JPS.

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Jane LaRiviere and Louis R. Osternig

Ice-induced anesthesia is often used to permit pain-free activity. However, icing before a skilled performance may distort the ability to acknowledge sensory stimuli and may thereby mask certain protective mechanisms. Inadequate peripheral feedback regarding position of a limb in space could expose the joint to injury. This study was designed to determine the effect of ice immersion on ankle joint position sense. Three different pretest conditions of no ice immersion, 5 min of ice immersion, and 20 min of ice immersion were administered to 31 subjects prior to joint angle replication testing with an electrogoniometer. Subjects completed eight repositioning trials (four at each of two test angles) following each condition. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed no statistically significant difference between conditions, trials, or angles. The results suggest that joint position receptors in the ankle are resilient to this type of ice treatment, or that the affected receptors (i.e., skin and muscle) were adequately compensated for by other sensors such as joint receptors.

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Joseph E. Szczerba, Julie N. Bernier, David H. Perrin and Bruce M. Gansneder

The purpose of this study was to estimate intertester reliability of active and passive ankle joint position sense measurements in uninjured subjects. Subjects were 10 males and 10 females. Active and passive ankle joint position sense was assessed by two testers. Each subject was positioned supine on a modified examination table with his or her ankle placed in 25° of plantar flexion. Joint position sense (IPS) measurements, on two separate occasions, were recorded in degrees of error from four predetermined test positions. Test order was counterbalanced according to mode (active/passive) and test position. Two trials were performed for each sequence and the average of the two was recorded for analysis. The results revealed that both the active and passive JPS protocols yielded poor to moderate intertester reliability. It was concluded that further research is needed to develop reliable protocols for testing joint position sense of the ankle joint.

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Eric J. Heit, Scott M. Lephart and Susan L. Rozzi

The purpose of this study was to determine the proprioceptive effects of ankle bracing and taping. Proprioception was assessed in 26 subjects by evaluating ankle joint position sense, which was determined by the subjects' ability to actively reproduce a passively positioned joint angle. Testing was performed at positions of 30° of plantar flexion and 15° of inversion. Each subject underwent four trials at each test angle under three conditions: braced, taped, and control. For the plantar flexion test, both the braced condition and the taped condition significantly enhanced joint position sense when compared to the control condition. There was no significant difference between the braced and taped conditions. For the inversion test, the taped condition significantly enhanced joint position sense compared to the control condition. There was no significant difference between the braced and the control conditions or between the braced and the taped conditions. This study demonstrates that ankle bracing and taping improve joint position sense in the stable ankle.