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Takuma Hoshiba, Hiroki Nakata, Yasuaki Saho, Kazuyuki Kanosue and Toru Fukubayashi

behavioral characteristics would help appropriately design rehabilitation interventions before a patient returns to his or her sport activities. To assess deficits in the awareness of knee joint position following ACL injury and/or reconstruction, the position-reproducing task has been the most applied in

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Hannah Horris, Barton E. Anderson, R. Curtis Bay and Kellie C. Huxel Bliven

contraction. 6 As body positions change and postural demands increase, such as when moving from supine to seated to standing positions, the diaphragm’s ability to maintain both respiration and postural stabilization roles may be challenged, thus increasing the propensity for altered breathing mechanics in

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Lynne Neiers and Teddy W. Worrell

Assessment of posture is an integral component of the evaluation of patients with neck and shoulder dysfunctions. Protraction of the scapulae has been postulated to produce weakness of the shoulder musculature. Therefore, an accurate method is needed to assess scapular position in order to determine the effect of therapeutic intervention and classify dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to determine if an experienced clinician would accurately determine scapular position. Fifty subjects (age = 26 ±5.7 years, weight = 69.2 ±14.09 kg; height = 173.9 ±13.91 cm) participated in this study. The results revealed the following reliability coefficients: scapular distance (SD) intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = .80, scapular size (SS) ICC = .96, and normalized scapular abduction (NSA) (SD/SS) ICC = .34. These data demonstrate that NSA was not reproducible in this study. The authors hypothesize that NSA contains more measurement error because NSA is a ratio value in which both the numerator and denominator contain measurement error. Further study is needed before NSA values are used to determine scapular position or correlated NSA is used to force development of shoulder musculature.

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Paul F.J. Merkes, Paolo Menaspà and Chris R. Abbiss

characteristics, and environmental variables. 6 Therefore, CdA plays an important role in cycling, but is often overlooked, particularly within the sprint. Depending on the equipment and position of a cyclist on the bicycle, aerodynamic resistance represents approximately 95% of the total resistive forces

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Esther Casas, Arturo Justes and Carlos Calvo

joint and in all possible positions it can adopt. In rehabilitation of severe CNS pathological conditions, such as cerebral palsy or cerebrovascular accidents, different reflex methods (Vöjta 1 and Brunkow 2 methods) have been used to facilitate muscle activity. These methods achieve coordinated

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Marissa C. Gradoz, Lauren E. Bauer, Terry L. Grindstaff and Jennifer J. Bagwell

pathologies. 5 However, hip rotation ROM can be tested in supine with the hip flexed to 90°, 3 seated with the hip flexed to 90°, 6 or prone with the hip extended to neutral. 4 , 7 There is no standardized position for measuring hip rotation. Knowledge regarding the reliability of different hip rotation

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Bin Chen, Yichao Zhao, Xianxin Cao, Guojiong Hu, Lincoln B. Chen and Wenxin Niu

articular surface. 13 , 14 During throwing, the internal rotators produce concentric work from the position of maximal external rotation to accelerate the upper arm forward, whereas the external muscles act to decelerate and stabilize this concentric work to prevent joint functional instability and

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Travis J. Peterson and Jill L. McNitt-Gray

During the golf swing, players must coordinate the legs as one method to regulate linear and angular impulse generation to satisfy the whole-body mechanical objectives. 1 On the course, players also need to modify their address position by changing their lower-extremity configurations to

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Carly C. Sacco, Erin M. Gaffney and Jesse C. Dean

Kinesthesia, the sense of body movement, is widely acknowledged to play an important role in functional mobility. Both proprioceptive receptors (eg, muscle spindles) and cutaneous receptors (eg, Ruffini corpuscles) can provide sensory feedback related to body segment position or velocity, thus

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Dae-Hyun Kim, Jin-Hee Lee, Seul-Min Yu and Chang-Man An

previous studies have suggested the ankle position as a factor that may affect the QF strengthening exercise. 17 , 18 In these studies, the active dorsiflexion (AD) or active plantar flexion (AP) position was found to have superior QF electromyography (EMG) activity than the neutral position (NP), and the