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Daniel Balderson and Tom Sharpe

This study examined the effects of personal accountability and personal responsibility instructional treatments on elementary-age, urban, at-risk physical education students. A multiple treatment ABAD, ACAD, ADA, control behavior analysis design was implemented across four distinct matched class settings to determine the separate and combined treatment effects of each instructional treatment on the number of occurrences and percentage of class time for the following: teacher management, student leadership, passive and disruptive student off-task, positive social behavior, and student conflict and conflict resolution behaviors. Study participants included fourth- and fifth-grade students from four elementary classes in an inner-city charter-school setting. Results indicated that both personal accountability and personal responsibility treatments were effective in the primary treatment setting for changing all managerial, off-task, and positive social measures in desirable directions. Recommendations include analysis of the potential long-range and generalized effects of social-skill instruction for underserved children and youth conducted in the context of physical education classes.

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Juan Andrés Merino-Barrero, Alfonso Valero-Valenzuela, Noelia Belando Pedreño and Javier Fernandez-Río

reduction in students’ aggressive and disruptive behaviors ( Gordon, 2010 ), truancy, and tardiness ( Wright, Li, Ding, & Pickering, 2010 ) and an increase in positive social behaviors including conflict resolution ( Balderson & Sharpe, 2005 ). These results show that a model-based program, whose

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Maureen R. Weiss, Lindsay E. Kipp, Alison Phillips Reichter, Sarah M. Espinoza and Nicole D. Bolter

• Resolves conflicts • Communicates calmly • Deals with negative situations Increased positive social behaviors • Considers others’ feelings • More outgoing • Act like true self • Making good choices • Act nicer to others • More outgoing • Being a leader • Coming out of shell • Inclusive of others • Better

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Eva Guijarro, Ann MacPhail, Sixto González-Víllora and Natalia María Arias-Palencia

competition in physical education ( Hastie, 2017 ). Many features of the TPSR model reinforce the possibilities of SE, promoting positive social behaviors (i.e., students’ empowerment or positive peer interactions; Hastie & Buchanan, 2000 ) and personal responsibility (i.e., students performing roles

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positive social behaviors, developed positive peer relationships, improved running and motivation to run, and learned to stand up for self and others. Collectively, findings provide strong evidence that Girls on the Run is effective in promoting positive youth development, including season-long and