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Jason Doyle, Kevin Filo, Alana Thomson, and Thilo Kunkel

between sport consumption via spectating and social–psychological well-being. We adopted a positive psychology perspective and used Seligman’s ( 2011 ) PERMA (positive emotions, engagement, relationships, meaning, and accomplishment) framework to examine the extent to which large-scale events may provide

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Column-editor : Leslee A. Fisher and Craig A. Wrisberg

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Stuart J.H. Biddle, Sarah H. Whitehead, Toni M. O’Donovan, and Mary E. Nevill

Background:

Many adolescent girls have low levels of physical activity and participation declines with age. This review identifies recent correlates of physical activity in adolescent girls.

Methods:

Systematic review of papers published 1999 to mid-2003. Papers (k = 51) reporting a measure of physical activity and at least one potential correlate of physical activity in adolescent girls were analyzed.

Results:

Demographics related to physical activity were female gender (–), non-white ethnicity (–), age (–), and socio-economic status (+). Psychological correlates positively associated with physical activity were enjoyment, perceived competence, self-efficacy, and physical self-perceptions. Behavioral correlates showed that smoking was associated with lower and organized sport involvement with greater activity. Physical activity was associated with parental and family support but we found no consistent trends for environmental variables. Effects were small-to-moderate.

Conclusions:

Modifiable correlates for adolescent girls clustered around “positive psychology,” organized sport involvement, and the family.

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Nicole T. Gabana, Jeffrey B. Ruser, Mariya A. Yukhymenko-Lescroart, and Jenelle N. Gilbert

Two relatively new areas of exploration in the sport psychology literature are athlete gratitude and athlete spirituality. With the emergence of positive psychology in the 1990s, gratitude became a topic of interest for researchers across various branches of psychology. Gratitude has been examined

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Jeffrey B. Ruser, Mariya A. Yukhymenko-Lescroart, Jenelle N. Gilbert, Wade Gilbert, and Stephanie D. Moore

Developed as a response to the shift in psychological scholarship toward the treatment and healing of psychological pathologies, the science of positive psychology examines human strengths and virtues, such as well-being, contentment, satisfaction, hope, optimism, and happiness ( Seligman

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Rachel A. Millstein, Jeff C. Huffman, Anne N. Thorndike, Melanie Freedman, Carlyn Scheu, Sonia Kim, Hermioni L. Amonoo, Margot Barclay, and Elyse R. Park

positive psychology and physical activity intervention adapted to the needs of individuals at high risk for chronic diseases. Acknowledgments This work was supported by grant K23HL135277 to Dr. Millstein from the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health . Time for

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David P. Schary and Carolina Lundqvist

), 662 – 670 . doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2020.08.001 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2020.08.001 Green-Shortridge , T.M. , & Odle-Dusseau , H.N. ( 2009 ). Quality of life . In S.J. Lopez (Ed.), The encyclopedia of positive psychology (pp.  817 – 821 ). West Sussex, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons . 10

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Nicole T. Gabana, Jesse A. Steinfeldt, Y. Joel Wong, and Y. Barry Chung

The present study explored the relationships among gratitude, sport satisfaction, athlete burnout, and perceived social support among college student-athletes in the United States. Participants (N = 293) from 16 different types of sports at 8 NCAA Division I and III institutions were surveyed. Results indicated gratitude was negatively correlated with burnout and positively correlated with sport satisfaction, suggesting that athletes who reported more general gratitude also experienced lower levels of burnout and greater levels of satisfaction with their college sport experience. Perceived social support was found to be a mediator in both relationships. Limitations and implications for research and practice are discussed.

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K. Andrew R. Richards, Wesley J. Wilson, Steven K. Holland, and Justin A. Haegele

Although much has been learned about the workplace experiences of physical education teachers, less is known about the unique experiences of adapted physical educators (APEs). Grounded in role socialization theory, the purpose of this study was to understand the relationships among perceived organizational support, resilience, perceived mattering, emotional exhaustion, and job satisfaction in APEs. The participants included 237 APEs from the United States, who completed an online survey. The primary data analyses included confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. The final structural model was a good fit for the data, χ2(199) = 327.25, p < .001, χ2/df = 1.64; root-mean-square error of approximation = .052 (90% confidence interval [.042, .062], p = .354); standardized root-mean-square residual = .050; nonnormed fit index = .959; comparative-fit index = .964. The results of this study highlight the importance of developing a workplace environment in which APEs feel supported in developing perceptions of matter, reducing emotional exhaustion, and improving job satisfaction.

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Susan A. Jackson, Andrew J. Martin, and Robert C. Eklund

Long and short flow scales are examined from dispositional (n = 652 long; n = 692 short) and state (n = 499 long; n = 865 short) perspectives. The long flow scales constitute a 36-item multidimensional assessment of flow and have previously demonstrated good psychometric properties. The short flow scales constitute new abbreviated versions of the long forms, contain 9 items, and provide a brief measure of flow from a dimensional perspective. In the current study, long and short flow scales are assessed across a large and diverse physical activity sample. With few exceptions, these flow measures demonstrated acceptable model ft, reliability, and distributions; associations with key correlates in parallel and hypothesized ways; and invariance in factor loadings. Together, the scales provide options for assessing flow in different contexts and when different goals or constraints are operating. Researchers wanting to capture an aggregate of the multidimensional framework might find the short scales a pragmatic alternative when constraints prohibit use of the full-length versions.