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Brian D. Roy, Katherine Luttmer, Michael J. Bosman and Mark A. Tarnopolsky

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the influence of post-exercise macronutrient intake on weight loss, protein metabolism, and endurance exercise performance during a period of increased training volume. Ten healthy young female endurance athletes performed 4 60-min bouts of cycle ergometry at ~65% of V̇O2peak on 4 days (day 1, 3, 4, and 6) during 2 separate 1-week periods. On day 7. participants performed a ride to exhaustion at ~75% of V̇O2peak. One of the 7-day periods served as a control condition, where a placebo beverage was consumed following the exercise bouts on days 1, 3, 4, and 6 (CON). During the other 7-day protocol (POST), participants consumed a predefined formula beverage with added carbohydrate following the exercise bouts on days 1. 3,4, and 6. Energy intake and macronutrient proportions were the same between the 2 trials; the only difference was the timing at which the macronutrients were consumed. Calculated fat oxidation was greater during exercise on day 6 during POST as compared to CON (p < .05). Glucose and insulin concentrations were significantly higher (p < .05) following exercise during POST as compared to CON. There was a trend (p = .06) for nitrogen balance to be greater on days 5 and 6 with POST as compared to CON. Time to exhaustion during exercise on day 7 was longer during POST as compared to CON (p < .05). POST resulted in a maintenance of body weight during the 7-day protocol, while there was a significant (p < .05) reduction with CON. It was concluded that post-exercise macronutrient intake following endurance exercise can attenuate reductions in body weight and improve nitrogen balance during 7 days of increased energy expenditure. Importantly, post-exercise supplementation improved time to exhaustion during a subsequent bout of endurance exercise.

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Mindy Millard-Stafford, Gordon L. Warren, Leah Moore Thomas, J. Andrew Doyle, Teresa Snow and Kristen Hitchcock

Post-exercise nutrition is critical to facilitate recovery from training. To determine if added protein (P) or increased carbohydrate (CHO) differentially improves recovery, eight runners ingested: 6% CHO (CHO6), 8% CHO + 2% protein (CHOP), and isocaloric 10% CHO (CHO10) following a 21-km run plus treadmill run to fatigue (RTF) at 90% VO2max. RTF was repeated after 2 h recovery. After 24 h, a 5 km time trial was performed. Insulin and blood glucose were higher (P < 0.05) following CHO10 compared to CHO-P and CHO6, but did not affect improvement from the first to second RTF (29.6% ± 6, 40.5% ± 8.8, 40.5% ± 14.5) or 5 km time (1100 ± 36.3, 1110 ± 37.3, 1118 ± 36.5 s). CK was not different, but perceived soreness with CHO-P (2.1 ± 0.5) was lower than CHO10 (5.2 ± 0.7). Additional calories from CHO or P above that provided in sports drinks does not improve subsequent performance after recovery; but less soreness suggests benefits with CHO-P.

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Michael J. Saunders

Endurance athletes commonly consume carbohydrate-electrolyte sports beverages during prolonged events. The benefits of this strategy are numerous—sports-beverage consumption during exercise can delay dehydration, maintain blood glucose levels, and potentially attenuate muscle glycogen depletion and central fatigue. Thus, it is generally agreed that carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages can improve endurance performance. A controversy has recently emerged regarding the potential role of protein in sports beverages. At least 3 recent studies have reported that carbohydrate-protein ingestion improves endurance performance to a greater extent than carbohydrate alone. In addition, carbohydrate-protein ingestion has been associated with reductions in markers of muscle damage and improved post exercise recovery. Although many of these muscle damage and recovery studies examined post exercise nutritional intake, recent evidence suggests that these benefits may be elicited with carbohydrate-protein consumption during exercise. These findings are intriguing and suggest that the importance of protein for endurance athletes has been underappreciated. However, 2 studies recently reported no differences in endurance performance between carbohydrate and carbohydrate-protein beverages. The varied outcomes may have been influenced by a number of methodological differences, including the amounts and types of carbohydrate or protein in the beverages, the exercise protocols, and the relative statistical power of the studies. In addition, although there are plausible mechanisms that could explain the ergogenic effects of carbohydrate-protein beverages, they remain relatively untested. This review examines the existing research regarding the efficacy of carbohydrate-protein consumption during endurance exercise. Limitations of the existing research are addressed, as well as potential areas for future study.

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Kelsey Dow, Robert Pritchett, Karen Roemer and Kelly Pritchett

forms of carbohydrate may be more practical and appealing for meeting post-exercise nutrition recommendations ( Dziedzic & Higham, 2014 ). Rehydration is another critical aspect of recovery between exercise bouts when recovery periods are limited to a few hours, such as during intermittent sport