Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 31 items for :

  • "postactivation potentiation" x
Clear All
Restricted access

Matthew J. Hodgson, David Docherty and E. Paul Zehr

The contractile history of muscle can potentiate electrically evoked force production. A link to voluntary force production, related in part to an increase in reflex excitability, has been suggested.

Purpose:

Our purpose was to quantify the effect of postactivation potentiation on voluntary force production and spinal H-reflex excitability during explosive plantar fexion actions.

Methods:

Plantar flexor twitch torque, soleus H-reflex amplitudes, and the rate of force development of explosive plantar fexion were measured before and after 4 separate conditioning trials (3 × 5 s maximal contractions).

Results:

Twitch torque and rate of force production during voluntary explosive plantar flexion were significantly increased (P < .05) while H-reflex amplitudes remained unchanged. Although twitch torque was significantly higher after conditioning, leading to a small increase in the rate of voluntary force production, this was unrelated to changes in reflex excitability.

Conclusion:

We conclude that postactivation potentiation may result in a minor increase in the rate of voluntary isometric force production that is unrelated to neural excitability.

Restricted access

Manuel Terraza-Rebollo and Ernest Baiget

be ready for the next shot. 2 The postactivation potentiation (PAP) effect is an acute enhancement on performance following a conditioning activity. PAP has been shown in explosive movements, mainly movements with SSC, such as jumping, 5 throwing, 6 upper body ballistic performance activities, 7

Restricted access

Antonio Dello Iacono, Marco Beato and Israel Halperin

Postactivation potentiation (PAP) refers to a short-term improvement in physical performance as a result of a previous conditioning activity. 1 Commonly used as the final part of a warm-up routine, 2 PAP-inducing protocols have the potential to enhance athletic activities such as jumping

Restricted access

Marco Beato, Stuart A. McErlain-Naylor, Israel Halperin and Antonio Dello Iacono

This review summarizes the current evidence regarding postactivation potentiation (PAP) strategies using flywheel eccentric overload (EOL) exercises. The first section covers the PAP phenomenon, its underpinning neurophysiological mechanisms, and commonly used PAP protocols. The second section

Restricted access

David Docherty and Matthew J. Hodgson

Recently there has been considerable interest and research into the functional significance of postactivation potentiation (PAP) on sport performance. The interest has evolved around the potential for enhancing acute performance or the long-term training effect, typically in the form of complex training. Complex training usually involves performing a weight-training exercise with high loads before executing a plyometric exercise with similar biomechanical demands. Despite a considerable amount of research in the past 10 years it would seem there is still much research to be done to fully determine whether PAP has a functional role and, if so, how to best exploit it. It is clear from the research that there are many factors that need to be considered when attempting to apply PAP to an athlete. It is possible that a well-conceived sport-specific warm-up might be as or more effective in enhancing acute performance and easier to apply in a practical setting. In addition, despite its current popularity, there has not been 1 study that has effectively examined the efficacy of complex training and whether it has any advantage over other forms of training that combine weight training and plyometrics but not in the same training session.

Restricted access

Gert Ulrich and Mario Parstorfer

Purpose:

There are limited data on postactivation potentiation’s (PAP) effects after plyometric conditioning contractions (CCs), especially in the upper body. This study compared plyometric CCs with concentric-eccentric and eccentric CCs aiming to improve upper-body power performance due to a PAP effect.

Methods:

Sixteen resistance-trained males completed 3 experimental trials in a randomized order that comprised either a plyometric (PLY), a concentric-eccentric (CON), or an eccentric-only (ECC) CC. Maximal muscle performance, as determined by a ballistic bench-press throw, was measured before (baseline) and 1, 4, 8, 12, and 16 min after each CC.

Results:

Compared with baseline, bench-press power was significantly enhanced only in CON (P = .046, ES = 0.21) after 8 min of recovery. However, the results obtained from the comparisons between baseline power performance and the individual best power performance for each subject after each CC stimulus showed significant increases in PLY (P < .001, ES = 0.31) and CON (P < .001, ES = 0.38). There was no significant improvement in ECC (P = .106, ES = 0.11).

Conclusions:

The results indicate that only CON CCs generated increases in bench-press power after 8 min of rest. However, considering an individual rest interval, PLY CCs led to an enhanced power performance in the bench-press exercise, and this increase was comparable to that induced by CON CCs. Due to the easy practical application before a competition, PLY CCs might be an interesting part of warm-up strategies aiming to improve upper-body power performance by reason of PAP.

Restricted access

Liam P. Kilduff, Charlotte V. Finn, Julien S. Baker, Christian J. Cook and Daniel J. West

Sports scientists and strength and conditioning professionals spend the majority of the competition season trying to ensure that their athletes’ training and recovery strategies are appropriate to ensure optimal performance on competition day. However, there is an additional window on the day of competition where performance can be acutely enhanced with a number of preconditioning strategies. These strategies include appropriately designed warm-up, passive heat maintenance, postactivation potentiation, remote ischemic preconditioning, and, more recently, prior exercise and hormonal priming. The aim of this review was to explore the potential practical use of these strategies and propose a theoretical timeline outlining how they may be incorporated into athlete’s precompetition routine to enhance performance. For the purpose of this review the discussion is confined to strategies that may enhance performance of short-duration, high-intensity sports (eg, sprinting, jumping, throwing).

Restricted access

Bent R. Rønnestad, Gunnar Slettaløkken Falch and Stian Ellefsen

Postactivation-potentiation exercise with added whole-body vibration (WBV) has been suggested as a potential way to acutely improve sprint performance. In cycling, there are many competitions and situations where sprinting abilities are important.

Purpose:

To investigate the effect of adding WBV to warm-up procedures on subsequent cycle sprint performance.

Methods:

Eleven well-trained cyclists participated in the study. All cyclists performed a familiarization session before 2 separate test sessions in randomized order. Each session included a standardized warm-up followed by 1 of the following preconditioning exercises: 30 s of half-squats without WBV or 30 s of half-squats with WBV at 40 Hz. A 15-s Wingate sprint was performed 1 min after the preconditioning exercise.

Results:

Performing preconditioning exercise with WBV at 40 Hz resulted in superior peak power output compared with preconditioning exercise without WBV (1413 ± 257 W vs 1353 ± 213 W, P = .04) and a tendency toward superior mean power output during a 15-second all-out sprint (850 ± 119 W vs 828 ± 101 W, P = .08). Effect sizes showed a moderate practical effect of WBV vs no WBV on both peak and mean power output.

Conclusions:

Preconditioning exercise performed with WBV at 40 Hz seems to have a positive effect on cycling sprint performance in young well-trained cyclists. This suggests that athletes can incorporate body-loaded squats with WBV in preparations to specific sprint training to improve the quality of the sprint training and also to improve sprint performance in relevant competitions.

Restricted access

Olfa Turki, Wissem Dhahbi, Sabri Gueid, Sami Hmaied, Marouen Souaifi and Riadh Khalifa

the risk of injury. 6 , 7 In addition to increasing body temperature, studies have also reported other warm-up effects, such as decreased muscle stiffness and resting oxygen consumption, 6 improved psychological effects, 6 and the occurrence of the phenomenon of postactivation potentiation (PAP). 7

Restricted access

Benjamin Pageaux, Jean Theurel and Romuald Lepers

postactivation potentiation is likely the cause of the negligible impact of uphill walking on knee extensor force production capacity. Indeed, postactivation potentiation has been previously proposed to “offset fatigue in endurance exercise, increase rate of force development, and, thus, improve speed and power