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Matthew J. Hodgson, David Docherty, and E. Paul Zehr

The contractile history of muscle can potentiate electrically evoked force production. A link to voluntary force production, related in part to an increase in reflex excitability, has been suggested.

Purpose:

Our purpose was to quantify the effect of postactivation potentiation on voluntary force production and spinal H-reflex excitability during explosive plantar fexion actions.

Methods:

Plantar flexor twitch torque, soleus H-reflex amplitudes, and the rate of force development of explosive plantar fexion were measured before and after 4 separate conditioning trials (3 × 5 s maximal contractions).

Results:

Twitch torque and rate of force production during voluntary explosive plantar flexion were significantly increased (P < .05) while H-reflex amplitudes remained unchanged. Although twitch torque was significantly higher after conditioning, leading to a small increase in the rate of voluntary force production, this was unrelated to changes in reflex excitability.

Conclusion:

We conclude that postactivation potentiation may result in a minor increase in the rate of voluntary isometric force production that is unrelated to neural excitability.

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Manuel Terraza-Rebollo and Ernest Baiget

be ready for the next shot. 2 The postactivation potentiation (PAP) effect is an acute enhancement on performance following a conditioning activity. PAP has been shown in explosive movements, mainly movements with SSC, such as jumping, 5 throwing, 6 upper body ballistic performance activities, 7

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Daniel Boullosa, Marco Beato, Antonio Dello Iacono, Francisco Cuenca-Fernández, Kenji Doma, Moritz Schumann, Alessandro Moura Zagatto, Irineu Loturco, and David G. Behm

Postactivation potentiation (PAP) is a muscular phenomenon that consists of an acute increment in strength and power performances as a result of the recent voluntary contractile history. 1 Much of the past literature suggested that PAP-induced augmented power contributed to enhancement of sport

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Kevin L. de Keijzer, Stuart A. McErlain-Naylor, Antonio Dello Iacono, and Marco Beato

Acute enhancement of force and power production underpins successful execution of sporting tasks by athletes of varying levels. 1 – 3 Such enhancement of voluntary muscle contractions has previously been termed postactivation potentiation (PAP). 4 Several physiological mechanisms leading to

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Antonio Dello Iacono, Marco Beato, and Israel Halperin

Postactivation potentiation (PAP) refers to a short-term improvement in physical performance as a result of a previous conditioning activity. 1 Commonly used as the final part of a warm-up routine, 2 PAP-inducing protocols have the potential to enhance athletic activities such as jumping

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Ilha G. Fernandes, Matheus A. Souza, Matheus L. Oliveira, Bianca Miarka, Michelle A. Barbosa, Andreia C. Queiroz, and Alexandre C. Barbosa

). Postactivation potentiation (PAP) or posttetanic potentiation is the phenomenon by which muscular performance factors are highly improved as a consequence of earlier conditioning contraction. Posttetanic potentiation is induced by an involuntary tetanic contraction, while PAP is a state of neuromuscular

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Marco Beato, Stuart A. McErlain-Naylor, Israel Halperin, and Antonio Dello Iacono

This review summarizes the current evidence regarding postactivation potentiation (PAP) strategies using flywheel eccentric overload (EOL) exercises. The first section covers the PAP phenomenon, its underpinning neurophysiological mechanisms, and commonly used PAP protocols. The second section

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Zied Abbes, Monoem Haddad, Khalid W. Bibi, Iñigo Mujika, Cyril Martin, and Karim Chamari

lacking. 1 Postactivation potentiation (PAP) has been proposed as a preconditioning strategy for an optimal warm-up. 2 This is defined as a mechanism by which muscular performance is acutely enhanced as a result of pre-exercise contractile activation. 3 The PAP is usually achieved by a combination of

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David Docherty and Matthew J. Hodgson

Recently there has been considerable interest and research into the functional significance of postactivation potentiation (PAP) on sport performance. The interest has evolved around the potential for enhancing acute performance or the long-term training effect, typically in the form of complex training. Complex training usually involves performing a weight-training exercise with high loads before executing a plyometric exercise with similar biomechanical demands. Despite a considerable amount of research in the past 10 years it would seem there is still much research to be done to fully determine whether PAP has a functional role and, if so, how to best exploit it. It is clear from the research that there are many factors that need to be considered when attempting to apply PAP to an athlete. It is possible that a well-conceived sport-specific warm-up might be as or more effective in enhancing acute performance and easier to apply in a practical setting. In addition, despite its current popularity, there has not been 1 study that has effectively examined the efficacy of complex training and whether it has any advantage over other forms of training that combine weight training and plyometrics but not in the same training session.

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Gert Ulrich and Mario Parstorfer

Purpose:

There are limited data on postactivation potentiation’s (PAP) effects after plyometric conditioning contractions (CCs), especially in the upper body. This study compared plyometric CCs with concentric-eccentric and eccentric CCs aiming to improve upper-body power performance due to a PAP effect.

Methods:

Sixteen resistance-trained males completed 3 experimental trials in a randomized order that comprised either a plyometric (PLY), a concentric-eccentric (CON), or an eccentric-only (ECC) CC. Maximal muscle performance, as determined by a ballistic bench-press throw, was measured before (baseline) and 1, 4, 8, 12, and 16 min after each CC.

Results:

Compared with baseline, bench-press power was significantly enhanced only in CON (P = .046, ES = 0.21) after 8 min of recovery. However, the results obtained from the comparisons between baseline power performance and the individual best power performance for each subject after each CC stimulus showed significant increases in PLY (P < .001, ES = 0.31) and CON (P < .001, ES = 0.38). There was no significant improvement in ECC (P = .106, ES = 0.11).

Conclusions:

The results indicate that only CON CCs generated increases in bench-press power after 8 min of rest. However, considering an individual rest interval, PLY CCs led to an enhanced power performance in the bench-press exercise, and this increase was comparable to that induced by CON CCs. Due to the easy practical application before a competition, PLY CCs might be an interesting part of warm-up strategies aiming to improve upper-body power performance by reason of PAP.