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Katrina G. Ritter, Matthew J. Hussey and Tamara C. Valovich McLeod

postconcussion syndrome (PCS). 3 Current recommendations for the treatment of concussions and PCS include physical and cognitive rest; however, this recommendation is vague, lacks evidence, 4 and leaves a large degree of decision making up to the individual clinician. For a long time, it was believed that

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Henry T. Bream III

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Zachary C. Merz, Joanne E. Perry and Michael J. Ross

treatment for concussed athletes. As will be discussed in subsequent sections, the individual was originally referred due to a concern of postconcussion syndrome (PCS) following a sport-related injury. Early sessions predominately included discussions regarding the client’s neurological history, the

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Kyoungyoun Park, Thomas Ksiazek and Bernadette Olson

to activities of daily living and participation without consequence within a reasonable time frame (30 d or less). However, some adolescents do not recover within this time frame and are then diagnosed with postconcussion syndrome (PCS). 9 Dizziness, unsteadiness, and imbalance are a common cluster

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Joellyn M. Seward

Edited by Marjorie J. Albohm

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Janelle Prince, Eric Schussler and Ryan McCann

, nausea, loss of consciousness, and pressure in the head. Most concussions resolve within 2 to 4 weeks, but approximately 10% to 33% of individuals have persistent symptoms for months after the initial injury. 6 – 8 An associated comorbidity following concussion is postconcussion syndrome (PCS). Clinical

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Steven Nagib and Shelley W. Linens

, including dizziness, persisting greater than 10 days, is diagnosed with postconcussion syndrome (PCS). 2 Prolonged dizziness can also increase risk of falls, automobile accidents, interrupted workdays, dysfunctional gait, and a delay in return to activity and sport. 1 Vestibular rehabilitation therapy

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Timothy A. Kulpa, Jamie Mansell, Anne Russ and Ryan Tierney

-related symptoms for much longer. 5 – 9 Any recovery time outside of the “normal” window, of 7–14 days for adults 5 , 7 and 4 weeks for adolescents, 10 – 13 is considered persistent. A subset of patients with persistent symptoms may be diagnosed with postconcussion syndrome (PCS). According to the World Health

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Diane M. Wiese-Bjornstal, Andrew C. White, Hayley C. Russell and Aynsley M. Smith

The psychology of sport concussions consists of psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial factors that contribute to sport concussion risks, consequences, and outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to present a sport concussion-adapted version of the integrated model of psychological response to sport injury and rehabilitation (Wiese-Bjornstal, Smith, Shaffer, & Morrey, 1998) as a framework for understanding the roles of psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial factors in sport concussions. Elements of this model include preinjury psychological risk factors, postinjury psychological response and rehabilitation processes, and postinjury psychological care components. Mapped onto each element of this model are findings from the research literature through a narrative review process. An important caveat is that the subjective nature of concussion diagnoses presents limitations in these findings. Future research should examine psychological contributors to concussion risk, influences of physical factors on psychological symptoms and responses, and efficacy of psychological treatments utilizing theory-driven approaches.

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Nicholas Hattrup, Hannah Gray, Mark Krumholtz and Tamara C. Valovich McLeod

concussion 2 and reduced potential stresses on the brain to promote recovery. 3 However, recent systematic reviews 4 , 5 determined that the extended rest may not be beneficial to patients, and moderate activity levels and early activity may help to decrease the risk of postconcussion syndrome and improve