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Allyson M. Carter, Stephen J. Kinzey, Linda F. Chitwood and Judith L Cole


Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) is commonly used before competition to increase range of motion. It is not known how it changes muscle response to rapid length changes.


To determine whether PNF alters hamstring muscle activity during response to rapid elongation.


2 X 2 factorial.




Twenty-four women; means: 167.27 cm, 58.92 kg, 21.42 y, 18.41% body fat, 21.06 kg/m2 BMI.


Measurements before and after either rest or PNF were compared.

Main Outcome Measures:

Average muscle activity immediately after a rapid and unexpected stretch, 3 times pretreatment and posttreatment, averaged into 2 pre-and post- measures.


PNF caused decreased activity in the biceps femoris during response to a sudden stretch (P = .04). No differences were found in semitendinosus activity (P = .35).


Decreased muscle activity likely results from acute desensitization of the muscle spindle, which might increase risk of muscle and tendon injury.

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Diulian Muniz Medeiros, César Marchiori and Bruno Manfredini Baroni

were subsequently deleted. The search comprised the following terms: “Hamstring Muscle,” “Semitendinosus,” “Semimembranosus,” “Biceps Femoris,” “Posterior thigh,” “Muscle architecture,” “Fascicle length,” “Pennation angle,” “Muscle thickness,” “Nordic hamstring exercise,” “Nordic curl,” “Nordic curl

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Amandda de Souza, Cristiano Gomes Sanchotene, Cristiano Moreira da Silva Lopes, Jader Alfredo Beck, Affonso Celso Kulevicz da Silva, Suzana Matheus Pereira and Caroline Ruschel

gains in knee and hip ROM in soccer players immediately after SMR of the anterior and posterior thigh muscles. Mohr et al 19 also verified increased hip-flexion ROM in physically active individuals after SMR of the posterior thigh muscles (3 × 60 s). However, other studies did not find improvements

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Julio Zago, Fellipe Amatuzzi, Tatiana Rondinel and João Paulo Matheus

musculature of the lower limbs may increase compression of the patellofemoral joint, which can increase pain in this region. 9 Patients with PFPS have a significant decrease in posterior thigh flexibility (PTF) and other muscle groups when compared with healthy control subjects, 10 leading to gait

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Fang-Yu Hsu, Kuei-Lan Tsai, Chia-Lun Lee, Wen-Dien Chang and Nai-Jen Chang

, bilateral posterior thigh, bilateral anterior thigh, back, and bilateral shoulder. The protocols for the warm-up exercises are detailed in Figures  1 – 3 . To ensure each exercise was correctly conducted, participants were supervised by a licensed physical therapist. Table 2 Outcomes for DS Combined With SS

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Kenneth J. Richter

A 57-year-old patient who was on Coumadin was placed on a very vigorous sports medicine rehabilitation program for a left hemiparesis. His prothrombin was stable at 16 seconds with a control of 12.4 seconds. After doing knee flexion and extension exercises on an isokinetic machine, he developed an extensive posterior thigh ecchymosis. Rehabilitation clinicians need to be aware of the possibility of such a complication in an anticoagulated patient.

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Nobuo Takeshima, Keizo Shimada, Mohammod M. Islam, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Yoshie Ishida and William F. Brechue

To clarify the progression of muscle loss in nursing home residents, frail women (n = 16; age: 85 ± 9 years; residence time: 764 days) were assessed for physical activity, caloric intake, and site-specific muscle thickness (MTH) and subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) using B-mode ultrasound at nine anatomical sites at four intervals over one year. Height, body weight, and BMI did not change. Physical activity (246 steps/day) and nutritional intake (1,441 kcal, 60.3 g protein/day) were unaltered throughout the study. Subjects experienced a significant, progressive loss of muscle indicated by decrements in anterior upper arm (20%), posterior upper arm (25%), abdomen (20%), subscapular (33%), anterior thigh (15%), posterior thigh (22%), anterior lower leg (11%), posterior lower leg (13%), and forearm (15%) MTH. At study inception, prevalence of sarcopenia was related to muscle loss in the upper leg, while upper body muscle wasting contributed to sarcopenia later and was unrelated to physical activity, nutritional input, or duration of residence.

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Guest Editorial Significance, Statistical or Practical—The Question of so What? Stephen J. Kinzey PhD 11 2000 9 4 267 268 10.1123/jsr.9.4.267 Original Research Reports Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Decreases Muscle Activity during the Stretch Reflex in Selected Posterior Thigh Muscles

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Jose Ignacio Priego-Quesada, Alejandro Pérez-Guarner, Alexis Gandia-Soriano, Fran Oficial-Casado, Carlos Galindo, Rosa M. Cibrián Ortiz de Anda, José David Piñeiro-Ramos, Ángel Sánchez-Illana, Julia Kuligowski, Marco A. Gomes Barbosa, Máximo Vento and Rosario Salvador Palmer

protocol. (C) The ROIs for baseline thermography measurements: (1) abdominal, (2) lumbar back, (3) anterior thigh, (4) posterior thigh, (5) anterior knee, (6) posterior knee, (7) anterior leg, and (8) posterior leg. (D) The logarithmic equation obtained with the cold-stress test in the anterior leg. ROI

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Genki Hatano, Shigeyuki Suzuki, Shingo Matsuo, Satoshi Kataura, Kazuaki Yokoi, Taizan Fukaya, Mitsuhiro Fujiwara, Yuji Asai and Masahiro Iwata

at the point immediately prior to the onset of pain in the posterior thigh. Hence, the PT at the onset of pain values indicates the resistance that occurred in the hamstring immediately prior to the onset of pain in the posterior thigh. As seen in previous studies, 12 , 14 increases in the PT at the