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Ryan Morrison, Kyle M. Petit, Chris Kuenze, Ryan N. Moran, and Tracey Covassin

often found throughout an athletic season. These balance changes achieved during an athletic season suggest a possible threat to preseason assessments, further making postconcussion balance deficits harder to identify. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine preseason versus postseason

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Joseph Ray, Jimmy Smith, and Brian Fowler

Social media has become a powerful source of sports information. The uncertainty of outcomes of a sporting event is a contributing factor to fan satisfaction, which in turn affects fans’ social-media habits. If teams can determine specific factors that affect these social-media habits, marketing conclusions can be drawn. The current research followed the Twitter accounts of 4 National Hockey League (NHL) teams throughout the 2015 NHL postseason to observe changes in fan engagement. The results displayed increasing growth during each subsequent round of the Stanley Cup playoffs, which indicates an advantageous time to gain fans and develop brand loyalty. The current research showed that retweets and favorites earned on team tweets were shown to have the greatest correlation to followers gained. The growth demonstrated during the postseason provides sports organizations the opportunity to cultivate a strong and loyal following for their teams through strategic marketing initiatives.

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Mandy Clark, Debra B. Reed, Stephen F. Crouse, and Robert B. Armstrong

Little published data describe the dietary and physiological profiles of intercollegiate female soccer players; therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to report baseline dietary data, anthropometrics, and performance indices of soccer women during rigorous pre-season training (2 sessions/day) and then during the post-competitive season. Members of a NCAA Division I women’s soccer squad completed 3-day diet records, anthropometrics, and physical tests, including VO2peak. Average body mass was 62 kg with 16% body fat, and no significant pre to post differences were observed. Total energy, carbohydrate (CHO), protein, and fat intakes were significantly greater during the pre-sea-son. Pre-season energy intake met the DRI for females with an “active” lifestyle (37 kcal/kg). While CHO intake failed to meet minimum recommendations to promote glycogen repletion (7–10 g/kg), protein and fat intakes were above minimum recommendations. Pre- and post-season intakes of several micronu-trients were marginal (<75% of the DRI) including vitamin E, folate, copper, and magnesium. VO2peak significantly improved from pre- to post-season (42 and 50 ml/kg/min). In this study female soccer players appeared to meet caloric needs during periods of training but failed to meet minimum CHO and micronu-trient recommendations. Foods higher in protein and fat displaced more CHOrich and nutrient-dense foods within athletes’ energy requirements and satiety limits.

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Boyi Dai, Christopher J. Sorensen, Timothy R. Derrick, and Jason C. Gillette

The effects of training on biomechanical risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries have been investigated, but the effects of detraining have received little attention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a one-month postseason break on knee biomechanics and lower extremity electromyography (EMG) during a stop-jump task. A postseason break is the phase between two seasons when no regular training routines are performed. Twelve NCAA female volleyball players participated in two stop-jump tests before and after the postseason break. Knee kinematics, kinetics, quadriceps EMG, and hamstring EMG were assessed. After one month of postseason break, the players demonstrated significantly decreased jump height, decreased initial knee flexion angle, decreased knee flexion angle at peak anterior tibial resultant force, decreased prelanding vastus lateralis EMG, and decreased prelanding biceps femoris EMG as compared with prebreak. No significant differences were observed for frontal plane biomechanics and quadriceps and hamstring landing EMG between prebreak and postbreak. Although it is still unknown whether internal ACL loading changes after a postseason break, the more extended knee movement pattern may present an increased risk factor for ACL injuries.

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Davide Ferioli, Aaron T. Scanlan, Daniele Conte, Emanuele Tibiletti, and Ermanno Rampinini

Purpose: To quantify and compare the internal workloads experienced during the playoffs and regular season in basketball. Methods: A total of 10 professional male basketball players competing in the Italian first division were monitored during the final 6 weeks of the regular season and the entire 6-week playoff phase. Internal workload was quantified using the session rating of perceived exertion (s-RPE) method for all training sessions and games. A 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (day type × period) was utilized to assess differences in daily s-RPE between game days, days within 24 hours of games, and days >24 hours from games during the playoffs and regular season. Comparisons in weekly training, game, and total workloads were made between the playoffs and regular season using paired t tests and effect sizes. Results: A significant interaction between day and competitive period for s-RPE was found (P = .003, moderate). Lower s-RPE was apparent during playoff and regular-season days within 24 hours of games than all other days (P < .001, very large). Furthermore, s-RPE across days >24 hours from playoff games was different than all other days (P ≤ .01, moderate–very large). Weekly training (P = .009, very large) and total (P < .001, moderate) s-RPE were greater during the regular season than playoffs, whereas weekly game s-RPE was greater during the playoffs than the regular season (P < .001, very large). Conclusions: This study presents an exploratory investigation of internal workload during the playoffs in professional basketball. Players experienced greater training and total weekly workloads during the regular season than during the playoffs with similar daily game workloads between periods.

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Laura Martin and Martin Camiré

what their coaches had taught them during the season. Interviews In total, 18 individual interviews were conducted with the coaches (i.e., pre- and postseason) and 21 individual interviews were conducted with the athletes (i.e., postseason). Prior to the data collection, a pilot interview occurred with

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Allison Manwell, James Johnson, and Khirey Walker

course load and seemed to focus more on the football spotlight rather than the details of his courses. To be eligible for postseason play in a different academic term, student-athletes must earn (i.e., pass) six hours of course work. On his last bi-monthly progress report, John had earned a C+, two Ds

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Eamon T. Campolettano, Gunnar Brolinson, and Steven Rowson

assent to participation while their guardians provided written consent. Preseason testing was conducted the first week of the season before contact practice began and postseason testing was completed within 2 weeks of the end of the season. The testing consisted of BESS administration and a force

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Theresa L. Miyashita and Paul A. Ullucci

theoretically it is logical to assume there would be neurological deficits associated with cumulative head impacts, research results are mixed in their findings. 2 – 6 While some researchers have found no meaningful changes from preseason to postseason on measures of neurological function in college football