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P. Margaret Grant, Malcolm H. Granat, Morag K. Thow and William M. Maclaren

This study measured objectively the postural physical activity of 4 groups of older adults (≥65 yr). The participants (N = 70) comprised 3 patient groups—2 from rehabilitation wards (city n = 20, 81.8 ± 6.7 yr; rural n = 10, 79.4 ± 4.7 yr) and the third from a city day hospital (n = 20, 74.7 ± 7.9 yr)—and a healthy group to provide context (n = 20, 73.7 ± 5.5 yr). The participants wore an activity monitor (activPAL) for a week. A restricted maximum-likelihood-estimation analysis of hourly upright time (standing and walking) revealed significant differences between day, hour, and location and the interaction between location and hour (p < .001). Differences in the manner in which groups accumulated upright and sedentary time (sitting and lying) were found, with the ward-based groups sedentary for prolonged periods and upright for short episodes. This information may be used by clinicians to design appropriate rehabilitation interventions and monitor patient progress.

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Thomas A. Stoffregen, M. Russell Giveans, Sebastien Villard, Jane Redfield Yank and Kevin Shockley

When two standing people converse with each other there is an increase in their shared postural activity, relative to conversation with different partners. We asked pairs of participants to converse with each other or with experimental confederates while standing on rigid and nonrigid surfaces. On the rigid surface, shared postural activity was greater when participants conversed with each other than when they conversed with confederates. In addition, the strength of interpersonal coupling increased across trials, but only when members of a dyad conversed with each other. On the nonrigid surface, postural sway variability increased, but we found no evidence that shared postural activity was different when participants conversed with each other, as opposed to conversing with confederates. We consider several possible interpretations of these results.

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Tatiana G. Deliagina, Irina N. Beloozerova, Ludmila B. Popova, Mikhail G. Sirota, Harvey A. Swadlow, Gunnar Grant and Grigore N. Orlovsky

In this paper, we describe the postural activity in sitting rats and rabbits. An animal was positioned on the platform that could be tilted in the frontal plane for up to ±20-30°, and postural corrections were video recorded. We found that in both rat and rabbit, the postural reactions led to stabilization of the dorsal-side-up trunk orientation. The result of this was that the trunk tilt constituted only ~50% (rat) and 25% (rabbit) of the platform tilt. In addition, in the rabbit the head orientation was also stabilized. Trunk stabilization persisted in the animals subjected to the bilateral labyrinthectomy and blindfolding, suggesting that the somatosensory input is primarily responsible for trunk stabilization. Trunk stabilization was due to extension of the limbs on the side moving down, and flexion of the opposite limbs. EMG recordings showed that the limb extension was caused by the active contraction of extensor muscles. We argue that signals from the Golgi tendon organs of the extensor muscles may considerably contribute to elicitation of postural corrective responses to the lateral tilt.

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Isaac Estevan, Sergio Gandia, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, José Luis Bermejo and Xavier García-Massó

and reflect the postural activity required to maintain balance ( Paillard & Noé, 2015 ), were computed from the remaining 40 s of signal ( Cabeza-Ruiz et al., 2011 ; Prieto, Myklebust, Hoffmann, Lovett, & Myklebust, 1996 ). The videos recorded during the WMT were analyzed by a single member of the

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Scott E. Crouter, Paul R. Hibbing and Samuel R. LaMunion

correctly identifying sitting activities and mixed posture activities. During mixed posture activities, the AG misclassified the activities as sitting 25.3% of the time. For walking and running, the AG and AP both correctly identified the activity greater than 96% of the time. Table 2 Classification

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Astrid C.J. Balemans, Han Houdijk, Gilbert R. Koelewijn, Marjolein Piek, Frank Tubbing, Anne Visser-Meily and Olaf Verschuren

) the average rectified muscle activity was calculated over the 2 minutes in which a physiologic steady state was achieved. The ARV of the left and right side of the body were averaged leading to 1 ARV per muscle pair. ARV per muscle pair for each posture/activity was expressed as a percentage of ARV

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Xavier García-Massó, Adrià Marco-Ahulló, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, Julio Álvarez-Pitti and Jose-Luis Bermejo

stability in middle childhood and adolescence but not in early childhood. The results of the present study found differences in the postural control of overweight/obese and normal-weight children from 8–17 years old. Overweight/obese children showed greater postural sway and lower postural activity than

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Keren Susan Cherian, Ashok Sainoji, Balakrishna Nagalla and Venkata Ramana Yagnambhatt

activity record with 4 columns (time, posture, activity description, and remarks) for tabulating the type and duration of an activity to account for 1440 minutes ( 55 ). Time allocation pattern was collected by actual observation during training hours in both morning and evening session. Nontraining

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Christopher J. Palmer and Richard E.A. van Emmerik

.1016/j.gaitpost.2009.02.015 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2009.02.015 Hodges , P.W. , Heijnen , I. , & Gandevia , S.C. ( 2001 ). Postural activity of the diaphragm is reduced in humans when respiratory demand increases . Journal of Physiology, 537 ( 3 ), 999 – 1008 . PubMed ID: 11744772 doi:10