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Yongwoo Lee, Wonjae Choi, Kyeongjin Lee, Changho Song and Seungwon Lee

population. Therefore, we investigated the effectiveness of virtual reality training using 3D video games in improving postural balance and muscle strength of the lower extremities in community-dwelling older adults. Methods Participants Participants were recruited from the senior welfare center in Seoul

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Nili Steinberg, Gordon Waddington, Roger Adams, Janet Karin and Oren Tirosh

& Whitaker, 2012 ). Postural balance (PB) is defined as the ability to maintain the body’s center of mass within its base of support ( Shumway-Cook & Woollacott, 1995 ). Static PB is the ability to maintain a base of support with minimal movement. Dynamic PB requires control over the center of gravity

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Anis Kamoun, Omar Hammouda, Abdelmoneem Yahia, Oussema Dhari, Houcem Ksentini, Tarak Driss, Nizar Souissi and Mohamed Habib Elleuch

Alpini et al. ( 2004 ) have proved that lack of MEL levels leads to vestibular impairment and balance disturbance ( Alpini et al., 2004 ), few researches have tested the potential effect of MEL on postural balance in older adults. Previous studies have proved that acute evening MEL (2 mg) ingestion did

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Wonjae Choi and Seungwon Lee

paddling movement in the sagittal planes could be emphasized to improve postural balance. Another positive effect of kayaking is that it increases upper extremity muscle strength and endurance at the same time without any upper extremity problems or overload ( Bjerkefors, Jansson, & Thorstensson, 2006

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Hsieh-ching Chen, Keh-chung Lin, Chia-ling Chen and Ching-yi Wu

This study evaluated the effect of context on the reaching performance of the unaffected arm and postural control while standing in patients with right cerebral vascular accidents (RCVA) and in healthy adults. Fifteen subjects with RCVA and sixteen healthy subjects performed tasks with the right hand under two conditions while standing. One condition involved moving coins forward on a table as far as possible (concrete task) and the other reaching forward without a target (abstract task). Forward reaching distance, forward displacement and lateral shift of center of pressure (CoP), and weight distribution were the dependent variables. The RCVA and control groups achieved significantly greater reaching distances in the concrete task than in the abstract one. The RCVA group showed significantly less lateral shift of the CoP and placed more weight on the affected leg in the concrete than the abstract task, whereas the control group made a greater lateral shift in the concrete task and had a similar mean ratio of weight distribution during both tasks. The results demonstrate that a functional application of task targets may favorably modulate both reaching and posture performance and exert various positive affects on postural control. Such applications may have a place in the therapeutic recovery efforts for patients afflicted with stroke.

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Karl Fullam, Brian Caulfield, Garrett F. Coughlan, Wayne McNulty, David Campbell and Eamonn Delahunt

effect on sensorimotor function and athletic performance. Fullam et al 9 reported that postural balance was negatively affected by a 15-minute cryotherapy application to the ankle joint, which is in agreement with previous research in the area. 10 – 12 In a literature review investigating whether

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Jeremy A. Patterson, Ryan Z. Amick, Priyanka D. Pandya, Nils Hakansson and Michael J. Jorgensen

Context:

The most widely used method for postural balance assessment relies on the subjective observations of a test administrator. Accelerometry has been shown to provide a valid and reliable method for assessment of balance, and recent advances in microelectromechanical systems have made the technology available in mobile electronic devices.

Objective:

To compare a mobile technology application with a commonly used subjective balance assessment.

Setting:

Biomechanics laboratory.

Participants:

Twenty-one nonathlete college-aged individuals (7 men, 14 women; mean age 23 ± 3 years) volunteered to participate. Subjects were excluded if they reported any preexisting condition that might affect postural balance.

Results:

A strong inverse correlation was found between the scores for the two balance assessment methods (r = -.767, p < .01).

Conclusions:

Advances in technology have provided an attractive means to objectively quantify postural balance with off-the-shelf mobile consumer electronic devices.

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Suzanne C. Hoeppner and James H. Rimmer

The purpose of this study was to determine if self-reported exercise status (exercise, nonexercise) and ambulatory status (aid, no aid) discriminate between balance performance and balance self-efficacy of older adults, ages 65 to 95 years. Participants were 14 males and 46 females in a retirement home that contained a supervised fitness center. An activities-specific balance confidence scale and three balance performance tests yielded data. Data from males and females were combined because independent t tests revealed no significant gender differences. The Mann Whitney U test revealed that (a) exercisers (M age = 83.4) scored significantly higher than nonexercisers (M age = 83.7) on all measures, and (b) nonaid users (M age = 83.5) scored significantly higher than aid users (M age = 83.7). Findings indicate that regular exercise (at least 30 min per day, 3 days per week) and ambulation without a cane or walker are descriptors of older adults with good balance performance and high balance self-efficacy.

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Simo Ihalainen, Vesa Linnamo, Kaisu Mononen and Sami Kuitunen

Purpose:

To describe the long-term changes in shooting technique in relation to competition performances in elite air-rifle shooters.

Methods:

Seventeen elite shooters completed simulated air-rifle shooting-competition series in 3 consecutive seasons, participating on 15 ± 7 testing occasions. Shooting score and aiming-point-trajectory variables were obtained with an optoelectronic shooting device, and postural-balance variables were measured with force platform. Shooters’ competition results were collected from all international and national competitions during the 3-y period.

Results:

Mean test score, stability of hold, aiming accuracy, cleanness of triggering, and postural balance improved during the 3-y period (ANOVA, time, P < .05−.01). Seasonal mean test results in stability of hold (R = −.70, P = .000) and cleanness of triggering (R = −.75, P = .000) were related to competition performances. Changes in stability of hold (R = −.61, P = .000) and cleanness of triggering (R = −.39, P = .022) were also related to the changes in competition performances. Postural balance in shooting direction was more related to cleanness of triggering (R = .57, P = .000), whereas balance in cross-shooting direction was more related to stability of hold (R = .70, P = .000).

Conclusion:

The shooting-technique testing used in the current study seems to be a valid and useful tool for long-term performance assessment. Stability of hold, cleanness of triggering, and postural balance can be further developed even at the elite level, resulting in improved competition performances.

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Tzu Chuan Yen, Nima Toosizadeh, Carol Howe, Michael Dohm, Jane Mohler and Bijan Najafi

Balance assessments could render useful objective performance measures to evaluate the efficacy of low back surgeries, yet these assessments have not been collectively examined to determine longitudinal sensitivity across surgical interventions. The purpose of this review was to determine sensitivity of balance measurements for disparate spinal disorders after surgical intervention. We searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and CINAHL. Articles were selected based on: (1) sample consisted of low back disorder individuals and (2) balance measurements were obtained both pre- and postsurgery. Most of the articles addressed 2 specific low back disorders: (1) adolescent idiopathic scoliosis/spinal fusion and (2) disc herniation/decompression surgery. For scoliosis patients, body sway increased (14–97%) immediately following surgery but gradually reduced (1–33%) approaching the 1-year post spinal fusion assessment. For patients with disc herniation, sway range, sway velocity, sway area, and sway variability all decreased (19–42%) immediately postsurgery. Balance assessments for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis who underwent surgical intervention should be performed with visual occlusion, focus on time domain parameters, and evaluated with longer follow-up times. Patients with disc herniation who underwent decompression surgery should have balance assessments with visual deprivation, test conditions specifically addressing hip strategy, and correlation with pain.