force platforms. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the test–retest reliability of subjects’ postural sway during 24 standing balance tasks, within and between 2 visits occurring 1 week apart. Secondary to this main purpose, we wanted to examine which kinematic variables of postural
Saud F. Alsubaie, Susan L. Whitney, Joseph M. Furman, Gregory F. Marchetti, Kathleen H. Sienko and Patrick J. Sparto
Cameron T. Gibbons, Polemnia G. Amazeen and Aaron D. Likens
placement and postural sway, which is commonly operationalized as distance traveled ( Day, Steiger, Thompson, & Marsden, 1993 ; Kim et al., 2014 ; Kirby et al., 1987 ; Mitra & Fraizer, 2004 ). Common approaches are to change the area of BoS by having participants simply vary the distance between feet or
Leah S. Goudy, Brandon Rhett Rigby, Lisa Silliman-French and Kevin A. Becker
functional outcomes in older adults with PD. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the changes in balance, postural sway, and QoL following 6 weeks of SHBR in older adults diagnosed with PD. It was hypothesized that (a) balance and postural sway would improve and (b) specific dimensions of the
Andressa Busch Rocha Pereira and Renato Moraes
their importance, can disturb control of upright stance, thus causing an increase in postural sway ( Bisson, Lajoie, & Bilodeau, 2014 ; Gimmon, Riemer, Oddsson, & Melzer, 2011 ; Vuillerme, Burdet, Isableu, & Demetz, 2006 ). Although older adults typically exhibit more postural sway than young adults
Michael A. Riley, Suvobrata Mitra, Thomas A. Stoffregen and Michael T. Turvey
We examined the potentially exploratory and performatory nature of postural sway. Subjects stood upright or leaned forward, with eyes open or closed. Postural data were analyzed using a statistical mechanics analysis of center of pressure (COP) trajectories, which examines the fractional Brownian nature of postural sway. Positive correlations (persistence) over short time scales are hypothesized to reflect exploratory behavior, and negative correlations (antipersistence) over long time scales are hypothesized to reflect performatory behavior. When leaning, subjects exhibited decreased levels of persistence (decreased correlation) and increased levels of antipersistence (increased correlation) than when upright. With eyes open, subjects showed decreased levels of persistence and decreased levels of antipersistence than with eyes closed. Effects of vision were more pronounced when leaning. Evidence for direction-specific exploration (based upon root mean square variability analysis) was considered. Task-specificity and trade-offs between biomechanical and task constraints in models of postural control were discussed.
Philip W. Fink, Sarah P. Shultz, Eva D’Hondt, Matthieu Lenoir and Andrew P. Hills
of stability suggest that obesity imposes significant constraints on children’s balance. Obese children have a greater area of postural sway ( Colne, Frelut, Peres, & Thoumie, 2008 ; Deforche et al., 2009 ), specifically in the mediolateral direction ( McGraw, McClenaghan, Williams, Dickerson
Andrew G. Baker, William G. Webright and David H. Perrin
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a resistive tubing kick training protocol on postural sway in uninjured collegiate wrestlers. An experimental group (n = 10) performed a progressive resistive tubing kick training protocol three times per week for 6 weeks. A control group (n = 9) performed no resistive tubing training during the 6 weeks. Postural sway (stability index) was assessed before and after the 6-week training period. ANOVAs demonstrated no significant interactions, although significant main effects were found for group and eye condition. The experimental group demonstrated less postural sway than the control group regardless of training, and postural sway was greater with the eyes closed than with the eyes open. Resistive tubing kick training does not significantly improve postural sway in healthy collegiate wrestlers. Further research should examine the potential benefits of proprioceptive training using a greater intensity of training and/or using subjects who have a greater potential for improvement.
Akinori Nagano, Shinsuke Yoshioka, Dean Charles Hay and Senshi Fukashiro
The purpose of this study was to test whether a light finger touch on one’s own body (upper legs) reduces postural sway. Ten healthy males participated. In the first part of the study, the participants stood upright with their eyes closed on a force platform while ground reaction force data were collected. Two conditions differing in the placement of the arms and fingers were tested. In the no-touch condition, the participants kept their hands in loose fists. In the finger-touch condition, the participants lightly touched the lateral sides of the upper legs with all fingers. Postural sway measures were calculated from the ground reaction force data. In the second part of the study, the participants stood upright on a pneumatic balance disk while ground reaction force data were collected. Experimental and measurement protocols were identical to those used in the first part of the study. The results showed that light finger touch on the upper legs significantly reduced postural sway on the balance disk up to ~7%. The data from this study suggest that decreased postural sway due to finger contact may improve balance control during other standing tasks.
Jay N. Hertel, Kevin M. Guskiewicz, David M. Kahler and David H. Perrin
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of induced anesthesia of the lateral ankle joint on proprioception as assessed in weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing conditions. Sixteen subjects were assessed under normal conditions and following an 8-cc injection of lidocaine into the anterior talofibular ligament of the ankle being tested. Center of balance and postural sway measurements were analyzed, revealing a significant lateral adjustment of center of balance during the stable tests compared to a medial adjustment during the dynamic tests under the anesthetized condition. ANOVA of postural sway scores revealed no main effect for condition (anesthesia vs. no anesthesia), but sway scores were higher during the two dynamic conditions as compared to the stable condition. ANOVA of joint position error scores revealed no main effect for condition. Findings suggest that inhibition of the joint receptor afferent fibers adversely affected joint proprioception as assessed while subjects were weight bearing but not while they were non-weight bearing.
Luis Mochizuki, Marcos Duarte, Alberto Carlos Amadio, Vladimir M. Zatsiorsky and Mark L. Latash
We investigated changes in postural sway and its fractions associated with manipulations of the dimensions of the support area. Nine healthy adults stood as quietly as possible, with their eyes open, on a force plate as well as on 5 boards with reduced support area. The center of pressure (COP) trajectory was computed and decomposed into rambling (Rm) and trembling (Tr) trajectories. Sway components were quantified using RMS (root mean square) value, average velocity, and sway area. During standing on the force plate, the RMS was larger for the anterior-posterior (AP) sway components than for the mediolateral (ML) components. During standing on boards with reduced support area, sway increased in both directions. The increase was more pronounced when standing on boards with a smaller support area. Changes in the larger dimension of the support area also affected sway, but not as much as changes in the smaller dimension. ML instability had larger effects on indices of sway compared to AP instability. The average velocity of Rm was larger while the average velocity of Tr was smaller in the AP direction vs. the ML direction. The findings can be interpreted within the hypothesis of an active search function of postural sway. During standing on boards with reduced support area, increased sway may by itself lead to loss of balance. The findings also corroborate the hypothesis of Duarte and Zatsiorsky that Rm and Tr reveal different postural control mechanisms.