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Evaluation of Time-to-Contact Measures for Assessing Postural Stability

Jeffrey M. Haddad, Jeff L. Gagnon, Christopher J. Hasson, Richard E.A. Van Emmerik, and Joseph Hamill

Postural stability has traditionally been examined through spatial measures of the center of mass (CoM) or center of pressure (CoP), where larger amounts of CoM or CoP movements are considered signs of postural instability. However, for stabilization, the postural control system may utilize additional information about the CoM or CoP such as velocity, acceleration, and the temporal margin to a stability boundary. Postural time-to-contact (TtC) is a variable that can take into account this additional information about the CoM or CoP. Postural TtC is the time it would take the CoM or CoP, given its instantaneous trajectory, to contact a stability boundary. This is essentially the time the system has to reverse any perturbation before stance is threatened. Although this measure shows promise in assessing postural stability, the TtC values derived between studies are highly ambiguous due to major differences in how they are calculated. In this study, various methodologies used to assess postural TtC were compared during quiet stance and induced-sway conditions. The effects of the different methodologies on TtC values will be assessed, and issues regarding the interpretation of TtC data will also be discussed.

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Compromised Dynamic Postural Stability Under Increased Load Carriage Magnitudes

Alice D. LaGoy, Caleb Johnson, Katelyn F. Allison, Shawn D. Flanagan, Mita T. Lovalekar, Takashi Nagai, and Chris Connaboy

load carriage on the warfighter be understood. 1 , 9 – 12 Additional load reduces the dynamic postural stability of an individual, and compromised dynamic postural stability may contribute to the increased injury risk associated with load carriage. 13 – 15 Dynamic postural stability refers to the

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Gender Differences in Static and Dynamic Postural Stability of Soldiers in the Army’s 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault)

Timothy C. Sell, Mita T. Lovalekar, Takashi Nagai, Michael D. Wirt, John P. Abt, and Scott M. Lephart

females for greater risk of injury or may require additional or different training to meet the gender-neutral requirements of the newly opened MOS. 8 , 9 Postural stability is a dynamic process that requires sensory detection of body motions, integration of sensorimotor information within the central

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Postural Stability Under Dual-Task Conditions: Development of a Post-Concussion Assessment for Lower-Extremity Injury Risk

Caroline Westwood, Carolyn Killelea, Mallory Faherty, and Timothy Sell

Concussions are a significant problem in athletic populations and can cause several severe symptoms. 1 Studies have shown that athletes who suffer concussions often have persistent postural stability deficits. 1 Long-term effects include an increased risk of lower-extremity injury, 2

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The Effect of Holding an Object on Postural Stability and Suprapostural Task Performance

Joshua J. Liddy, Amanda J. Arnold, HyeYoung Cho, Nathaniel L. Romine, and Jeffrey M. Haddad

object has been proposed as a potential assistive strategy for increasing postural stability in balance-compromised populations. 2 – 4 There are several issues that need to be addressed before researchers or clinicians consider implementing this strategy. This study examined whether holding improves the

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Postural Stability When Walking and Exposed to Mediolateral Oscillatory Motion: Effect of Oscillation Waveform

Hatice Mujde Ayık and Michael J. Griffin

When traveling by land, sea, or air, standing and walking passengers and crew experience various types of oscillatory perturbations that disturb their postural stability. To minimize instability caused by motion of a floor on which people are supported, it is necessary to understand how the

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Monopodal Postural Stability Assessment by Wireless Inertial Measurement Units Through the Fast Fourier Transform

José Pino-Ortega, Alejandro Hernández-Belmonte, Carlos D. Gómez-Carmona, Alejandro Bastida-Castillo, Javier García-Rubio, and Sergio J. Ibáñez

Defined as the ability to maintain the center of pressure of a body within the base of support with minimal postural sway through somatosensory information, 1 the postural stability is regulated by complex neurophysiological systems formed by the central and peripheral nervous system, the

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Working Memory Task Influence in Postural Stability and Cognitive Function in Adolescents

Isaac Estevan, Sergio Gandia, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, José Luis Bermejo, and Xavier García-Massó

Balance refers to the ability to stabilize the body to maintain posture with quiet standing while relying on integrating information from the visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive systems ( Mickle, Munro, & Steele, 2011 ). Consequently, balance or postural stability are not automatically regulated

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Contribution of Somatosensory and Parietal Association Areas in Improving Standing Postural Stability Through Standing Plantar Perception Training in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

Satoshi Matsuno, Takuya Yoshiike, Atsushi Yoshimura, Sachiyo Morita, Yusuke Fujii, Motoyasu Honma, Yuji Ozeki, and Kenichi Kuriyama

Standing postural stability in humans requires adequate coordination of axial and lower-limb muscles to stabilize the trunk and head positions to compensate for various movements of distal body parts. Postural stability is crucial for performing activities of daily living. However, standing

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Step-Down Test Assessment of Postural Stability in Patients With Chronic Ankle Instability

Doris Bolt, René Giger, Stefan Wirth, and Jaap Swanenburg

Ankle sprains demonstrate the highest incidence of all lower extremity injuries. 1 Recently, a lot of attention has been devoted to the dynamic postural stability and its influence on functional ankle instability. 2 Tests that challenge postural stability are required to identify deficits. 2