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Christopher K. Rhea, Jed A. Diekfuss, Jeffrey T. Fairbrother and Louisa D. Raisbeck

Postural control is a complex task that becomes more difficult with age ( Costa et al., 2007 ; Maki & McIlroy, 1996 ; Shaffer & Harrison, 2007 ), which can lead to increased fall risk ( Ambrose, Paul, & Hausdorff, 2013 ; Melzer, Benjuya, & Kaplanski, 2004 ; Rubenstein, 2006 ). Since the cause

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Victor Spiandor Beretta, Fabio Augusto Barbieri, Diego Orcioli-Silva, Paulo Cezar Rocha dos Santos, Lucas Simieli, Rodrigo Vitório and Lilian Teresa Bucken Gobbi

; Van Der Hoorn, Burger, Leenders, & De Jong, 2012 ; Yust-Katz, Tesler, Treves, Melamed, & Djaldetti, 2008 ). This asymmetry in motor performance is also seen in postural control in people with PD ( Barbieri et al., 2016 ; Beretta et al., 2015 ; Boonstra, Schouten, van Vugt, Bloem, & van der Kooij

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Renato Claudino, Marcio José dos Santos and Giovana Zarpellon Mazo

Age-related changes in sensory, motor, and musculoskeletal systems may cause important limitations in postural stability of older adults ( Lin & Woollacott, 2002 ; Lord & Sturnieks, 2005 ). Studies have shown differences between them and young adults in terms of magnitude and latency of muscular

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Karim Korchi, Frédéric Noé, Noëlle Bru and Thierry Paillard

Aging alters sensorimotor and cognitive functions, which reduces postural control and gait ( Maitre, Gasnier, Bru, Jully, & Paillard, 2013 ; Reuter-Lorenz, 2002 ) thus increasing the risk of falling in older adults ( Melzer, Benjuya, & Kaplanski, 2004 ). Falls represent a substantial threat to

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Patrícia Ferreira Guedes and Silvia Maria Amado João


The adolescent players federated to basketball have a high-level of endurance demand, often overloading the biological tissues and causing biomechanical compensations. Due to the immaturity of their musculoskeletal structures those consequences may influence the growing process and lead to the development of various postural patterns. We aimed to evaluate the postural alignment of the trunk in players.


Participants, 74 healthy adolescents: 36 basketball players (BG) and 38 adolescents in control group (CG). First, adolescents were marked with spheres over specific anatomical landmarks. Postural photographs were taken in the sagittal and frontal planes, and analyzed using the free internet Postural Analysis Software to obtain quantitative measures of the head, shoulders, and trunk.


ANCOVA has revealed significant group effects: players demonstrated greater lateral spinal inclination (P < .008). In the right sagittal plane, the BG had lower angular values of forward head position (P < .02), pelvic ante version (P < .02), vertical alignment of the trunk (P < .02), and thoracic kyphosis (P < .005). The covariate analysis has indicated that age influences the alignments of both the shoulders and the left scapula; and height influences the scapular alignment.


This study has demonstrated that basketball training within federations influences the musculoskeletal system of adolescents and reflects a process of postural adaptations.

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Douglas A. Pizac, Charles B. Swanik, Joseph J. Glutting and Thomas W. Kaminski

-top basketball shoes are effective in helping athletes resist inversion moments. 25 – 27 To our knowledge, no studies have evaluated postural control while wearing football cleats, which is critical for injury prevention as poor postural control is one of the many determinants for risk of ankle sprain. 28 As

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Adriana M. Degani, Alessander Danna-Dos-Santos and Mark L. Latash

We tested the hypothesis that a sequence of mechanical events occurs preceding a step that scales in time and magnitude as a whole in a task-specific manner, and is a reflection of a “motor program.” Young subjects made a step under three speed instructions and four tasks: stepping straight ahead, down a stair, up a stair, and over an obstacle. Larger center-of-pressure (COP) and force adjustments in the anteriorposterior direction and smaller COP and force adjustments in the mediolateral direction were seen during stepping forward and down a stair, as compared with the tasks of stepping up a stair and over an obstacle. These differences were accentuated during stepping under the simple reaction time instruction. These results speak against the hypothesis of a single motor program that would underlie postural preparation to stepping. They are more compatible with the reference configuration hypothesis of whole-body actions.

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Leah S. Goudy, Brandon Rhett Rigby, Lisa Silliman-French and Kevin A. Becker

abnormalities, including bradykinesia, akinesia, and hypokinesia ( Dibble, Addison, & Papa, 2009 ). These changes, in addition to the dysfunction in the sensorimotor system that occurs due to typical aging, may alter posture and balance ( Lee, Kwon, Son, Nam, & Kim, 2013 ). Older adults with PD may also exhibit

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Priscilla Augusta Monteiro Ferronato and José Angelo Barela

This study identified and quantified rambling and trembling properties of the postural control system of children 4–12 years of age. Forty five children of varying ages (4-, 8-, and 12-years) and 15 adults stood upright on a force plate and performed 5 trials with and 5 trials without vision with each trial lasting 30 s. Center of pressure, rambling, trembling, mean sway amplitude, and predominant frequency were obtained. Results revealed that the displacement of the center of pressure and overall rambling trajectories were age-related with younger children swaying more than older children and adults. Similarly, overall trembling trajectories for younger children were larger compared with older children and adults. These results suggested that a younger child’s larger body sway mostly results from difficulties using sensory information when estimating overall body position and velocity in an upright stance and is less a result from the noise in the postural control system.

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Neil Anderson and Chris Button

Control of static posture is constrained by multiple sensory inputs, motor ability, and task constraints. Development of static postural control across the lifespan can be analyzed effectively using nonlinear analyses of center of pressure (CoP) time series, including approximate and sample entropy. In this paper, the key findings from studies using nonlinear analysis tools are reviewed to describe the development of postural control. Preschool children learn to adopt relatively unstable postures (e.g., standing) in which the regularity of CoP initially increases as a consequence of restricting mechanical degrees of freedom. As children age, CoP regularity decreases as degrees of freedom are released, thus enabling a more functional, adaptable type of postural control. Changes to sensory inputs or task constraints also affect the regularity of CoP sway. For example, removing vision, adding vibration, or imposing dual-task conditions affect performer’s CoP regularity differently. One limitation of approximate and sample entropy analysis is the influence of different input parameters on the output and subsequent interpretation. Ongoing refinement to entropy analysis tools concern determining appropriate values for the length of sequence to be matched and the tolerance level used with CoP data.