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Heather L. Sheppard, Sneha M. Raichada, Kellie M. Kouri, Lena Stenson-Bar-Maor and J. David Branch

A survey was used to collect anonymous cross-sectional data on demographics, exercise habits, and use of creatine and other supplements by exercisers in civilian (C) and military (M) health clubs. M (n = 133) reported more aerobic training and less use of creatine and protein supplements than C(n = 96, p < .05). Supplement users (SU, n = 194) and nonusers (SNU, n = 35) engaged in similar frequency and duration of aerobic exercise, as well as number of resistance exercise repetitions, but SU completed more sets for each resistance exercise (x̄ ± SE, 5 ± 1) than SNU (3 ± 1, p ≤ .05). Significant (p ≤ .05) associations were observed between SU and resistance training goal of strength (as opposed to endurance), as well as greater frequency of resistance training. Male gender, resistance training goal of strength, lower frequency and duration of aerobic training, and use of protein, ß-hydroxy-ß-methyl butyrate, and androstenedi-one/dehydroepiandrosterone supplements were all associated with creatine use (p < .05). For creatine users, the dose and length of creatine supplementation was 12.2±2.7g•day·1 for 40 ± 5 weeks. Popular magazines were the primary source of information on creatine (69%) compared to physicians (14%) or dietitians (10%, p ≤ .0001). This study underscores two potential public health concerns: (a) reliance on popular media rather than allied-health professionals for information on creatine, and (b) use of creatine, a popular supplement with unknown long-term effects, in combination with other anabolic supplements of questionable efficacy and/or safety.

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Constantinos N. Maganaris, Dave Collins and Martin Sharp

Although expectancy has been shown to play a role in the effect of Anabolic Steroids (AS) on behavior, little research has been completed on the potential for parallel effects on performance. This is an important area for investigation because if expectancy effects can be shown to operate by improvements in performance through the administration of a placebo, arguments against the use of AS may be more successfully advanced. Accordingly, the present investigation used the administration of a placebo (saccharine) with competitive power lifters, using false information about the nature of the drug to delineate expectancy effects. The pervasiveness of these effects was further examined by disclosing the true nature of the drug to half of the participants, midway through the investigation. Notable improvements in performance associated with the belief that AS had been administered largely dissipated when athletes were informed as to the true nature of the drug. Results indicated that expectancy played a notable role in performance enhancement. Implications for this work include more effective use of such investigations in the fight against doping in sport.

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Lynda B. Ransdell and Christine L. Wells

Do women out-perform men in endurance sports? Are women as strong, pound for pound, as men? Many questions have been raised about the ability of women and men to perform physical tasks equally well. The issue of sex differences and similarities in performance has considerable significance today as women seek physically demanding careers in police-work, fire-fighting, the military, industry, and athletics. As more women participate in recreational and career opportunities formerly open only to men, knowledge about sex differences in response to physical exertion and training becomes increasingly important. In this paper we describes differences between the sexes in athletic performance.

Most performance differences are due to variations in morphological (structural) or physiological characteristics typical of women and men (Wells, 1991). Nevertheless, variations in these characteristics are often as large or larger within each sex as they are between the sexes. The same is true of physical performance. Thus, when the entire population is considered, there are extensive differences in performance within each sex, and considerable overlap in performance between the sexes.

We will base our examination of performance differences on the most outstanding performances of each sex: those exemplified by World Records in athletic events. We seek to answer such questions as: How large are sex differences in world record performances? Can existing performance differences be explained entirely by biological differences between the sexes? Or, are a large portion of these performance differ-ences attributable to sociocultural factors?

We will analyze sex differences in performance relative to the human energy system. This system allows an extraordinary range of mechanisms for neuromuscular coordination and metabolism. Because of this, the human has a virtually unlimited movement repertoire and is capable of movements requiring large bursts of energy over very brief periods of time, as well as movements requiring low levels of energy production over very long periods of time. We will progress from sports that require very high intensity and explosive quality movements such as jumping and power lifting, through the “energy spectrum” to feats of endurance such as marathon running, ultra-distance triathlon, and open-water distance swimming.

Due to our desire to focus this paper on a reasonable amount of data, our analysis will be limited as follows:

1) for sex differences in high intensity-brief duration, explosive per-formance, we will discuss the high jump, long jump, and various mea-sures of strength (powerlifting),

2) for sex differences in high intensity-short duration performance, we will present data on sprint running (100m, 400m) and swimming (100m),

3) for sex differences in moderate intensity-moderate duration performance, we will discuss middle-distance running (1500m, 5000m, 10,000m), and swimming (1500m), and

4) for differences in low intensity-long duration performance, we will discuss the marathon, the "Ironman Triathlon," and open ocean distance swimming.

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Afshin Samani and Mathias Kristiansen

when they compared novice and expert rowers. However, the intersubject variability of synergy components has been shown to differ between trained and untrained power lifters ( Kristiansen et al., 2015 ). Overall, we found consistent muscle synergies in a repetitive forceful exercise for the upper

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Dustin J. Oranchuk, Eric J. Drinkwater, Riki S. Lindsay, Eric R. Helms, Eric T. Harbour and Adam G. Storey

boys . J Strength Cond Res . 2008 ; 22 : 1522 – 1527 . PubMed ID: 18714236 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e318181a3d0 10.1519/JSC.0b013e318181a3d0 18714236 7. Hoffman JR , Cooper J , Wendell M , Kang J . Comparison of Olympic vs traditional power lifting training programs in football players . J

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Reid Reale, Gary Slater, Gregory R. Cox, Ian C. Dunican and Louise M. Burke

output, and thus increasing fluid losses relative to fluid restriction following ad libitum fluid intake ( Reale et al., 2016 ). Anecdotes exist among body builders and power lifters as well as in combat sports. Two recent investigations have confirmed the use of water loading in the United Kingdom

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Michele Merlini, Greg Whyte, Sam Marcora, Mike Loosemore, Neil Chester and John Dickinson

 = 3). Female participants were characterized by their involvement in a variety of sports at an amateur competitive level, including basketball (n = 8), football (n = 4), boxing (n = 2), and running (n = 1). Prior to participation in the study, none of the participants competed in strength and power-lifting

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John H. Challis

their mass to the one-third power, the relationship between the mass lifted and the subject mass is: m L ∝ mass 2 / 3 (25) To test this relationship, Challis ( 1999 ) used the Men’s World Record totals in the different mass classes for both Olympic and power lifting, set up until December 31, 1992. The

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Thomas Haugen, Gøran Paulsen, Stephen Seiler and Øyvind Sandbakk

between power lifters, Olympic lifters, and sprinters . J Strength Cond Res . 1999 ; 13 : 58 – 66 . 60. Davies CT , Rennie R . Human power output . Nature . 1968 ; 217 : 770 – 771 . doi:10.1038/217770a0 10.1038/217770a0 5641135 61. Carlock JM , Smith SL , Hartman MJ , et al . The

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Hugh H.K. Fullagar, Robert McCunn and Andrew Murray

strength training the greatest strength improvements are attained when training intensity exceeds 80% of players’ 1RM. 9 , 16 Comparatively, other authors favor Olympic lifting (where loads can range from 65–90%) over traditional power lifting, 51 , 52 where significantly greater improvements have been