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Mark G.L. Sayers and Stephen Bishop

-retest reliability of standard power variables developed during a new upper body power test involving vertical MBP-P throws from a supine position. Next, the influence of load on these data was determined by testing the reliability of MBP-P testing using medicine ball loads that are used typically in training

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Wissem Dhahbi, Anis Chaouachi, Johnny Padulo, David G. Behm and Karim Chamari

Purpose:

To examine the concurrent validity and absolute and relative reliabilities of a commando-specific power test.

Participants:

21 antiterrorism commandos.

Methods:

All participants were assessed on a 5-m rope-climbing test (RCT) and the following tests: pull-ups, push-ups, estimated-1-repetition-maximum (est-1RM), medicine-ball put, and handgrip-strength test. The stopwatch method related to the execution time (ET) was validated by comparison with video motion analysis. The best individual attempt of 3 trials was kept for analysis, and the performance was expressed in absolute power output (APO) and body-mass relative power output (RPO).

Results:

Stopwatch assessment had an excellent criterion validity (r = .99, P < .001), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC3,1) of .98, standard errors of measurement (SEM%) of 1.19%, bias ± the 95% limits of agreement of 0.03 ± 0.26 s, and minimal detectable change (MDC95) of 0.51 s. The ET, APO, and RPO were significantly correlated (P < .05) with all cited tests (absolute-value r range .55−.98), while est-1RM was not significantly correlated with the other tests. Test-retest reliability coefficients were excellent for ET, APO, and RPO (ICC3,1 > .90). The SEM% values for the ET, APO, and RPO were all under 5% (range 3.73−4.52%), all being smaller than the corresponding smallest worthwhile change. The coefficients of variation for the ET, APO, and RPO were all under 10%. %MDC95 ranged from 10.37% to 12.53%.

Conclusions:

Considering the strong concurrent validity and excellent test–retest reliability, the RCT is simple to administer, has ecological validity, and is a valid specific field test of upper-body power for commandos and, in addition, can be accurately assessed with a stopwatch.

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Erin Calaine Inglis, Danilo Iannetta, Louis Passfield and Juan M. Murias

Output Values During MLSS, the FTP 20 , and 95% FTP 20 MLSS FTP 20 FTP 95% Power output, W 243 (48) 275 (48)* 261 (45)* Abbreviations: FTP 20 , 20-Minute functional threshold power test; MLSS, maximal lactate steady state. Note: Values are in mean (SD). *Significantly greater than MLSS ( P  < .05

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Seihati A. Shiroma, Ursula F. Julio and Emerson Franchini

Purpose: To evaluate criterion validity, reliability, and usefulness of a test to measure maximal aerobic power using judo-specific movements (uchi-komi test [UKtest]). Methods: A total of 12 judokas performed 5 graded exercise tests (GETs) in 4 sessions. In sessions 1 and 2, upper-body (UBtest), lower-body (LBtest), and familiarization UKtest were performed. GETs were randomly performed and separated by at least 48 h. In sessions 3 and 4, test and retest UKtest were performed (7 d apart). For all GETs, peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak), maximal heart rate (HRmax), peak blood lactate concentration [Lapeak], maximal aerobic intensity, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were determined. Another group of 12 judokas performed the UKtest and 1 confirmation test (20 min after the UKtest) at 105% of maximal aerobic speed until exhaustion to confirm whether maximal responses were achieved. Results: V˙O2peak did not differ (P > .05) between UKtest (46.04 [5.34] mL·kg−1·min−1) and LBtest (44.78 [5.98] mL·kg−1·min−1), but it was higher (P < .05) than UBtest (37.03 [7.16] mL·kg−1·min−1). Total duration (551 [60] s) and [Lapeak] (7.10 [1.76] mmol·L−1) in the UKtest were different (P < .05) from UBtest (416 [47] s, 9.93 [2.15] mmol·L−1, respectively) and LBtest (433 [54] s, 10.29 [2.23] mmol·L−1, respectively). Very large relationships between V˙O2peak in UKtest with UBtest (r = .78; P = .003) and LBtest (r = .87; P < .001) were found. Maximal values were achieved for the UKtest V˙O2peak, HRmax, [Lapeak], RPE, and maximal aerobic speed, with no difference between test and retest (P > .05). In addition, very large intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for V˙O2peak (ICC = .86), HRmax (ICC = .90), and maximal aerobic speed (ICC = .81) were found. Conclusion: The UKtest can be considered a valid, reliable, and useful test to measure maximal aerobic power using judo-specific movements.

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Michelle S. Rockwell, Madlyn I. Frisard, Janet W. Rankin, Jennifer S. Zabinsky, Ryan P. Mcmillan, Wen You, Kevin P. Davy and Matthew W. Hulver

were invited to participate. Swimmers who were not able to participate in team-prescribed training or strength and power testing, or who were taking vitamin D supplements in the previous 30 days, were excluded from participation. Procedures Fasting blood samples were obtained from all participants for

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Sergej M. Ostojic

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute creatine-monohydrate supplementation on soccer-specific performance in young soccer players. Twenty young male soccer players (16.6 ± 1.9 years) participated in the study and were matched and allocated to 2 randomly assigned trials: ingesting creatine-monohydrate supplement (3 × 10-g doses) or placebo for 7 days. Before and after the supplementation protocol, each subject underwent a series of soccer-specific skill tests: dribble test, sprint-power test, endurance test, and vertical jump test. Specific dribble test times improved significantly in the creatine group (13.0 ± 1.5 vs. 10.2 ± 1.8 s; p < .05) after supplementation protocol. Sprint-power test times were significantly improved after creatine-monohydrate supplementation (2.7 ± 0.4 vs. 2.2 ± 0.5 s; p < .05) as well as vertical jump height (49.2 ± 5.9 vs. 55.1 ± 6.3 cm; p < .05) in creatine trial. Furthermore, dribble and power test times, along with vertical jump height, were superior in creatine versus placebo trial (p < .05) at post-supplementation performance. There were no changes in specific endurance test results within or between trials (p > .05). There were no between-trial differences in the placebo trial (p > .05). The main finding of the present study indicates that supplementation with creatine in young soccer players improved soccer-specific skill performance compared with ingestion of placebo.

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Grant R. Tomkinson, Michael J. Hamlin and Timothy S. Olds

Secular changes in anaerobic fitness test performance in healthy 6- to 17-year-old Australasians were examined by meta-analysis of 232,564 power- and speed-test performances between 1960 and 2002. Overall, power-test performance improved at a rate of +0.05% [95% confidence interval (CI) = +0.01% to +0.09%] per annum, and speed at +0.04% (CI = +0.02% to +0.06%) per annum. Results indicate that anaerobic-fitness-test performances have remained relatively stable in Australasian children and adolescents in recent decades.

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Jerry L. Mayhew, Michael G. Bemben, Donna M. Rohrs, Fontaine C. Piper and Michael K. Willman

The purpose of this study was to compare the measurement of upper body power between male (n = 36) and female (n = 23) adolescent wrestlers and basketball players using the seated shot put (SSP) and a bench press power test (BPP). Boys were significantly different from girls on all physical and performance measures except age. The two SSP tests were significantly related to the two BPP tests in boys, but not in girls. Both SSP tests were significantly related to body mass and fat-free mass (FFM) in boys, but not in girls. Removing the effect of body mass or FFM reduced the relationships of both SSP tests with both BPP tests. BPP output was more dependent on age, height, and body mass in boys than in girls. The SSP may be measuring a different component of upper body power than a BPP test in either male or female adolescent athletes.

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Carl M. Maresh, Catherine L. Gabaree, Jay R. Hoffman, Daniel R. Hannon, Michael R. Deschenes, Lawrence E. Armstrong, Avron Abraham, Frederick E. Bailey and William J. Kraemer

To examine the effect of a nutritional supplement (ATP-E™) on high intensity exercise performance, 23 physically active males volunteered to perform six Wingate Anaerobic Power tests. Tests were performed prior to and at 14 and 21 days during ATP-E~o~r placebo ingestion. f i e experiment followed a double-blind and random-order design. Twelve subjects (responders, R) showed an increase in preexercise blood ATP on Day 14 of ATP-E™ ingestion compared to control measures. The remaining 11 subjects (nonresponders, NR) had no change in pree~e~cibselo od ATP. Peak power and mean power were unchanged for both R and NR subjects across the exercise tests, but R experienced a decrease (p < 0.05) in immediate postexercise plasma lactate on Day 14 of ATP-E™ testing compared to their control measures. NR had no change in peak plasma lactate at any time during the study. The results suggest that short-term high intensity exercise performance was maintained in R with less reliance on anaerobic metabolism, and that response was evident following 14 days of ATP-E™ ingestion.

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Thomas C. Ball, Samuel A. Headley, Paul M. Vanderburgh and John C. Smith

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 7% carbohydrate-electrolyte (CE) drink on sprint capacity immediately following 50 min of high-intensity cycling. After an overnight 12-hr fast, 8 trained male cyclists performed two 50-min simulated time trials on a Monark stationary cycle ergometer. Subjects consumed either the CE or a flavored water placebo (PL) at 10, 20, 30, and 40 min during the time trial. At the conclusion of each 50-min time trial, subjects immediately performed a Wingate Anaerobic Power Test. Peak power, mean power, and minimum power were significantly higher for the CE trials, whereas mean RPE was significantly lower. Mean heart rate and fatigue index were not different between trials. These results suggest that sprint performance following a high-intensity simulated time trial of only 50 min can be improved with periodic consumption of CE during the ride, particularly following an overnight fast, when liver glycogen is likely to be low. These findings have implications for competitive cycling, where sprint capacity at the conclusion of a race is an important determinant of success.