= .053), post-30 ( p = .001), post-45 ( p = .001), and post-60 min ( p < .001) compared with the control session. Figure 1 —Behavior of SBP (a) and DBP (b) at rest, premuscle, and postmuscle PT and control sessions. SBP = systolic blood pressure; DBP = diastolic blood pressure; PT = power training
José Machado Filho, Carlos Leonardo Figueiredo Machado, Hirofumi Tanaka and Rodrigo Ferrari
Elena Pardos-Mainer, José Antonio Casajús, Chris Bishop and Oliver Gonzalo-Skok
there is a lack of studies looking at the effectiveness of strength and power training specifically on performance measures in youth female soccer populations. Interlimb asymmetries have been a common source of investigation in recent years and refer to the concept of comparing the function of one limb
Elaine Trudelle-Jackson, Emerenciana Hines, Ann Medley and Mary Thompson
of a muscle power training program on PA in older adults following TKA. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a home-based muscle power training program on muscle strength and power, functional performance, and PA behavior in individuals who are at least 6 months post-TKA. We
Konstantina Katsoulis, Liza Stathokostas and Catherine E. Amara
demonstrates the strongest relationship to function (especially gait speed) has implications for evidence-based power training (PT) guidelines for improving functional outcomes with aging. Although there is a paucity of studies directly investigating PT intensity on functional outcomes in older adults, a
Tom Hazell, Kenji Kenno and Jennifer Jakobi
Aging leads to significant losses in muscle mass, strength, and the ability to independently perform activities of daily living (ADL). Typically, standard resistance training (RT) has been used to reduce these losses in function by maintaining or even increasing muscle strength in older adults. Increasing strength does not necessarily, however, result in an increase in the ability to perform ADL. There is now research suggesting that muscle power is more closely associated with the performance of ADL than muscle strength is, so training for muscle power might lead to more beneficial results in functional performance. This review of studies investigating the effect of training on ADL performance in older adults indicated that standard RT is effective in increasing strength in older adults, but power training that contains high-velocity contractions might be a more optimal means of training older adults when the emphasis is on increasing the performance of ADL.
Warren B. Young
The purposes of this review are to identify the factors that contribute to the transference of strength and power training to sports performance and to provide resistance-training guidelines. Using sprinting performance as an example, exercises involving bilateral contractions of the leg muscles resulting in vertical movement, such as squats and jump squats, have minimal transfer to performance. However, plyometric training, including unilateral exercises and horizontal movement of the whole body, elicits significant increases in sprint acceleration performance, thus highlighting the importance of movement pattern and contraction velocity specificity. Relatively large gains in power output in nonspecific movements (intramuscular coordination) can be accompanied by small changes in sprint performance. Research on neural adaptations to resistance training indicates that intermuscular coordination is an important component in achieving transfer to sports skills. Although the specificity of resistance training is important, general strength training is potentially useful for the purposes of increasing body mass, decreasing the risk of soft-tissue injuries, and developing core stability. Hypertrophy and general power exercises can enhance sports performance, but optimal transfer from training also requires a specific exercise program.
Lilian França Wallerstein, Valmor Tricoli, Renato Barroso, André L.F. Rodacki, Luciano Russo, André Yui Aihara, Artur da Rocha Correa Fernandes, Marco Tulio de Mello and Carlos Ugrinowitsch
The purpose of this study was to compare the neuromuscular adaptations produced by strength-training (ST) and power-training (PT) regimens in older individuals. Participants were balanced by quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) and leg-press 1-repetition maximum and randomly assigned to an ST group (n = 14; 63.6 ± 4.0 yr, 79.7 ± 17.2 kg, and 163.9 ± 9.8 cm), a PT group (n = 16; 64.9 ± 3.9 yr, 63.9 ± 11.9 kg, and 157.4 ± 7.7 cm), or a control group (n = 13; 63.0 ± 4.0 yr, 67.2 ± 10.8 kg, and 159.8 ± 6.8 cm). ST and PT were equally effective in increasing (a) maximum dynamic and isometric strength (p < .05), (b) increasing quadriceps muscle CSA (p < .05), and (c) decreasing electrical mechanical delay of the vastus lateralis muscle (p < .05). There were no significant changes in neuromuscular activation after training. The novel finding of the current study is that PT seems to be an attractive alternative to regular ST to maintain and improve muscle mass.
Anthony P. Marsh, Michael E. Miller, W. Jack Rejeski, Stacy L. Hutton and Stephen B. Kritchevsky
It is unclear whether strength training (ST) or power training (PT) is the more effective intervention at improving muscle strength and power and physical function in older adults. The authors compared the effects of lower extremity PT with those of ST on muscle strength and power in 45 older adults (74.8 ± 5.7 yr) with self-reported difficulty in common daily activities. Participants were randomized to 1 of 3 treatment groups: PT, ST, or wait-list control. PT and ST trained 3 times/wk for 12 wk using knee-extension (KE) and leg-press (LP) machines at ~70% of 1-repetition maximum (1RM). For PT, the concentric phase of the KE and LP was completed “as fast as possible,” whereas for ST the concentric phase was 2–3 s. Both PT and ST paused briefly at the midpoint of the movement and completed the eccentric phase of the movement in 2–3 s. PT and ST groups showed significant improvements in KE and LP 1RM compared with the control group. Maximum KE and LP power increased approximately twofold in PT compared with ST. At 12 wk, compared with control, maximum KE and LP power were significantly increased for the PT group but not for the ST group. In older adults with compromised function, PT leads to similar increases in strength and larger increases in power than ST.
Seiichiro Takei, Kuniaki Hirayama and Junichi Okada
maximized at 80% 1RM in the present study. However, this finding was limited to cases where the success criterion for the receiving position was set above the parallel-squat position. By contrast, in the standard quarter-squat position, the optimal load was the maximal load. Thus, when using HPCs for power
Ryland Morgans, Rocco Di Michele and Barry Drust
-specific physical capacities. Furthermore, the potential effects of power training performed by the team during the study period on CMJ performance were not examined. Finally, the study was carried out over approximately a 3-month period in the middle of the season. Further studies need to address these points by