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Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo and Majke Jorgensen

the enhancement of power-to-weight ratio, achieved through skeletal muscle hypertrophy and/or maintaining low body fat levels ( Huovinen et al., 2015 ). The source of fatigue during sprint training is likely multifactorial ( Green, 1997 ), including neuromuscular and peripheral metabolic factors such

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Paolo Menaspà, Marco Sias, Gene Bates and Antonio La Torre

60 minutes expressed as power to weight ratio were analyzed in T10 and N-T10. 9 Self-reported body masses were used to calculate the power to weight ratios. The percentage of total race time spent at different power bands was compared between T10 and N-T10 using 0.75 W·kg −1 power bands, ranging

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Trent Stellingwerff, Ingvill Måkestad Bovim and Jamie Whitfield

, from a bioenergetic perspective, optimizing muscle glycogen contents to support high glycolytic flux (resulting in very high lactate values) with appropriate buffering capabilities, while optimizing power to weight ratios, are the principle nutritional interventions to emphasize in middle

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Edward J. Smith, Ryan Storey and Mayur K. Ranchordas

Bouldering competitions are held up to International level and governed by the International Federation of Sport Climbing. Bouldering has been selected to feature at the 2020 Olympic Games in Tokyo, however, physiological qualities and nutritional requirements to optimize performance remain inadequately defined due to large gaps in the literature. The primary goals of training include optimizing the capacity of the anaerobic energy systems and developing sport-specific strength, with emphasis on the isometric function of the forearm flexors responsible for grip. Bouldering athletes typically possess a lean physique, similar to the characteristics of sport climbers with reported body fat values of 6–12%. Athletes strive for a low body weight to improve power to weight ratio and limit the load on the extremities. Specialized nutritional support is uncommon and poor nutritional practices such as chronic carbohydrate restriction are prevalent, compromising the health of the athletes. The high intensity nature of bouldering demands a focus on adequate carbohydrate availability. Protein intake and timing should be structured to maximize muscle protein synthesis and recovery, with the literature suggesting 0.25–0.3 g/kg in 3–4 hr intervals. Supplementing with creatine and b-alanine may provide some benefit by augmenting the capacity of the anaerobic systems. Boulderers are encouraged to seek advice from nutrition experts to enhance performance, particularly important when weight loss is the desired outcome. Further research is warranted across all nutritional aspects of bouldering which is summarized in this review.

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Dan Benardot, Wes Zimmermann, Gregory R. Cox and Saul Marks

Competitive diving involves grace, power, balance, and flexibility, which all require satisfying daily energy and nutrient needs. Divers are short, well-muscled, and lean, giving them a distinct biomechanical advantage. Although little diving-specific nutrition research on performance and health outcomes exists, there is concern that divers are excessively focused on body weight and composition, which may result in reduced dietary intake to achieve desired physique goals. This will result in low energy availability, which may have a negative impact on their power-to-weight ratio and health risks. Evidence is increasing that restrictive dietary practices leading to low energy availability also result in micronutrient deficiencies, premature fatigue, frequent injuries, and poor athletic performance. On the basis of daily training demands, estimated energy requirements for male and female divers are 3,500 kcal and 2,650 kcal, respectively. Divers should consume a diet that provides 3–8 g/kg/day of carbohydrate, with the higher values accommodating growth and development. Total daily protein intake (1.2–1.7 g/kg) should be spread evenly throughout the day in 20 to 30 g amounts and timed appropriately after training sessions. Divers should consume nutrient-dense foods and fluids and, with medical supervision, certain dietary supplements (i.e., calcium and iron) may be advisable. Although sweat loss during indoor training is relatively low, divers should follow appropriate fluid-intake strategies to accommodate anticipated sweat losses in hot and humid outdoor settings. A multidisciplinary sports medicine team should be integral to the daily training environment, and suitable foods and fluids should be made available during prolonged practices and competitions.

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Jennifer Sygo, Alicia Kendig Glass, Sophie C. Killer and Trent Stellingwerff

these events. The need to jump as high or as far as possible also demands that athletes maintain an optimal body mass (BM) and body composition that maximize their power–weight (power-to-weight) ratio. Throwing events, which include shot put (SP), discus throw, javelin throw (JT), and hammer throw (HT

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Trent Stellingwerff

is currently defined as “the strategic manipulation of energy intake and energy expenditure between various training phases to reach a targeted body composition range that is optimal for performance (e.g., peak power-to-weight ratio), while minimizing risk to short-term and long-term health.” Even

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Louise M. Burke, Linda M. Castell, Douglas J. Casa, Graeme L. Close, Ricardo J. S. Costa, Ben Desbrow, Shona L. Halson, Dana M. Lis, Anna K. Melin, Peter Peeling, Philo U. Saunders, Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo, Oliver C. Witard, Stéphane Bermon and Trent Stellingwerff

) compared with competition • Power to weight needs to be optimized rather than maximized. Currently, there are insufficient morphological data to provide detailed guidance • When contrasted against other Athletes, relative energy and macronutrient intake is lower than in middle-distance and long

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Anna K. Melin, Ida A. Heikura, Adam Tenforde and Margo Mountjoy

main challenge: Achieving/maintaining a high level of muscularity, a high power to weight ratio, and optimal adaptation/performance without (a) negative health and performance effects of long-term LEA and (b) unwanted weight gain due to failure to match energy intake to expenditure. The solution

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Adam J. Zemski, Shelley E. Keating, Elizabeth M. Broad, Damian J. Marsh, Karen Hind and Gary J. Slater

). Increases in LM can influence the power-to-weight ratio of players, thus increasing the potential to proliferate momentum, strength, power, and speed ( Bell et al., 2005 ). Excess fat mass (FM) has negative implications for thermoregulation ( Selkirk & McLellan, 2001 ) and concurrently increases energy